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Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 32 +8, 11 strokes, cangjie input 水心土 (EPG), composition)

  1. (archaic variant of ) mud, mire
  2. earth, clay
  3. plaster

References[edit]


Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Pronunciation[edit]


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/3

Initial: (8)
Final: (39)
Tone: Level (Ø)

Openness: Open
Division: IV
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: ní
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/nei/ /nei/ /nɛi/ /nɛj/ /nei/ /niei/ /niei/
Character (), Pronunciation 2/3

Initial: (8)
Final: (39)
Tone: Departing (H)

Openness: Open
Division: IV
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: nì
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/neiH/ /neiH/ /nɛiH/ /nɛjH/ /neiH/ /nieiH/ /nieiH/
Character (), Pronunciation 3/3

Initial: (3)
Final: (149)
Tone: Departing (H)

Openness: Open
Division: II
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: bàn
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/bɣamH/ /bɯamH/ /bamH/ /baɨmH/ /bamH/ /bamH/ /bʱamH/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
264 1 /*braːms/
9423 1 /*niːl/
9424 1 /*niːls/

References[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(uncommon “Hyōgai” kanji)

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Readings[edit]