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See also:
U+590F, 夏
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-590F

[U+590E]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5910]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
10 strokes
Stroke order
夏-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 35, +7, 10 strokes, cangjie input 一山竹水 (MUHE), four-corner 10247, composition𦣻(GJK) or ⿱𦣻(HT))

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 245, character 12
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 5720
  • Dae Jaweon: page 485, character 29
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 869, character 10
  • Unihan data for U+590F

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
variant forms

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Spring and Autumn Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Ancient script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
夏-bronze-shang.svg 夏-oracle.svg 夏-bronze.svg 夏-bronze-spring.svg 夏-bronze-warring.svg 夏-silk.svg 夏-slip.svg 夏-ancient.svg 夏-seal.svg 夏-bigseal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*kraːʔ
*sraːs, *ɡraːʔ
*sqʰraːs, *qraːds
*ɡraːʔ, *ɡraːs

In the oracle bone script, it was an ideogrammic compound (會意):  (sun) +  (head; man) – man under the scorching sun; summer.

Various variants were seen in the bronze inscriptions from the Spring and Autumn period. (“foot”) was often added to the bottom of the man. Additionally, in the form shown above, the was removed and 𦥑 (“two hands”) was added. The seal script inherits its form from this form, with replaced with the related .

Various forms were also seen from the Warring States period. The bamboo and silk script above shows a common form:  +  + . The “ancient script” (古文) from Shuowen (labelled as the large seal script) has deviated significantly, with becoming the related . The top part may be a corruption of .

The current form is simplified from the seal script, with the removal of 𦥑 and the legs from .

Etymology 1[edit]

“great; Xia Dynasty; China; Chinese”
Possibly related to (OC *kraːʔ, *kraːs, “great”), (OC *kraːʔ, “great”) and (OC *sraːs, *ɡraːʔ, “big house”) (Wang, 1980). Shi (2000) and Mair (2013) relate this word to Tibetan རྒྱ (rgya, great; wide; width; size; expanse; China).
“magnificent colours; variegated”
The sense “variegated” may be of a different origin. Compare Proto-Sino-Tibetan *Krā(H) (variegated) (Starostin), whence Tibetan བཀྲ (bkra, variegated; bright; radiant; splendid), Tibetan ཁྲ (khra, many-coloured; variegated; mottled; striped) and Burmese ကျား (kya:, variegated; striped; chequered). Possibly related to (OC *ɡraː, “horse with mixed red and white colour”).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • 3hho - vernacular;
  • 3hhia - literary.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (33)
Final () (98)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () II
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɦˠaX/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɦᵚaX/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɣaX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɦaɨX/
Li
Rong
/ɣaX/
Wang
Li
/ɣaX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ɣaX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
xià
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
xià
Middle
Chinese
‹ X ›
Old
Chinese
/*[ɢ]ˁraʔ/
English great; pertaining to Chinese civilization

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 13452
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɡraːʔ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. (~朝) (historical) Xia Dynasty
  2. (by extension) China; Chinese
  3. great; grand; magnificent
  4. magnificent colours; resplendent colours; variegated
  5. Alternative form of (shà, “big house”).
  6. A surname​.
See also[edit]
Dynasties (朝代) in Chinese history
Name Time period Divisions
Xia
(~朝, ~代)
2070 – 1600 BCE
Shang
(~朝, ~代)
(~朝, ~代)
1600 – 1046 BCE
Zhou
(~朝, ~代)
1046 – 256 BCE Western Zhou
西周
Eastern Zhou
東周东周
Spring and Autumn period
春秋
Warring States period
戰國战国
Qin
(~朝, ~代)
221 – 206 BCE
Han
(~朝, ~代)
206 BCE – 220 CE Western Han
西漢西汉
Xin
(~朝)
Eastern Han
東漢东汉
Three Kingdoms
三國三国
220 – 280 CE Wei
Shu
Wu
Jin
(~朝, ~代)
265 – 420 CE Western Jin
西晉西晋
Eastern Jin
東晉东晋
Southern and Northern dynasties
南北朝
420 – 589 CE Northern dynasties
北朝
Northern Wei
北魏
Western Wei
西魏
Eastern Wei
東魏东魏
Northern Zhou
北周
Northern Qi
北齊北齐
Southern dynasties
南朝
Liu Song
劉宋刘宋
Southern Qi
南齊南齐
Liang
(~朝, ~代)
Chen
(~朝, ~代)
Sui
(~朝, ~代)
581 – 618 CE
Tang
(~朝, ~代)
618 – 907 CE
Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms
五代十國五代十国
907 – 960 CE
Liao
(~朝, ~代)
907 – 1125 CE
Song
(~朝, ~代)
960 – 1279 CE Northern Song
北宋
Southern Song
南宋
Western Xia
西夏
1038 – 1227 CE
Jin
(~朝, ~代)
1115 – 1234 CE
Western Liao
西遼西辽
1124 – 1218 CE
Yuan
(~朝, ~代)
1271 – 1368 CE
Ming
(~朝, ~代)
1368 – 1644 CE
Qing
(~朝, ~代)
1636 – 1912 CE

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • hē/hēe - vernacular;
  • hā/hēe - literary.
  • Wu
  • Note:
    • 3hho - vernacular;
    • 3hhia - literary.

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (33)
    Final () (98)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () II
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ɦˠaH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ɦᵚaH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ɣaH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ɦaɨH/
    Li
    Rong
    /ɣaH/
    Wang
    Li
    /ɣaH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ɣaH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    xià
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    xià
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ H ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[ɡ]ˁraʔ/ (~ *[ɡ]ˁraʔ-s)
    English summer

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 13454
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ɡraːs/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. summer (season)
    See also[edit]
    Seasons in Chinese · 四季 (sìjì, “four seasons”) (layout · text)
    (chūn, “spring”) (xià, “summer”) (qiū, “fall; autumn”) (dōng, “winter”)

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Definitions[edit]

    1. Alternative form of (jiǎ).
    2. Used in 陽夏阳夏.

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. summer
    2. Xia dynasty
    3. China

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia ja
    English Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia
    Kanji in this term
    なつ
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    /natu//nat͡su/

    From Old Japanese.

    Possibly from Proto-Altaic *ni̯ā́ŕà (young; spring, summer) (compare Korean 여름 (yeoreum, summer), Proto-Turkic *jāŕ (summer) (Turkish yaz)).[1].

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana なつ, rōmaji natsu)

    1. summer (season)
      Synonym: 夏季, 夏期 (kaki)
    Derived terms[edit]
    Proverbs[edit]
    See also[edit]
    Seasons in Japanese ·  () () (shiki, four seasons) (layout · text)
     (はる) (haru, spring)  (なつ) (natsu, summer)  (あき) (aki, fall; autumn)  (ふゆ) (fuyu, winter)

    Proper noun[edit]

    (hiragana なつ, rōmaji Natsu)

    1. a female given name
    2. a surname

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 2
    goon

    From Middle Chinese (MC ɦˠaH). The goon reading, so likely the initial borrowing.

    Also used in the Man'yōshū (759 CE) as 借音 (shakuon) kana for ⟨ge1.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana , rōmaji ge)

    1. (Buddhism) summer according to the lunisolar calendar; the ninety days starting from the sixteenth day of the fourth month until the fifteenth day of the seventh month
    Derived terms[edit]
    See also[edit]

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia ja
    English Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia
    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 2
    kan’on

    From Middle Chinese (MC ɦˠaX).

    The kan'on reading, so likely a later borrowing.

    Proper noun[edit]

    (hiragana , rōmaji Ka)

    1. the Xia dynasty (first dynasty of China)
    2. Short for 大夏 (Daika): Xia, one of the Sixteen Kingdoms
    3. Short for 西夏 (Seika): Western Xia, an empire during the Song dynasty
    4. a surname
    5. a male or female given name

    References[edit]

    1. ^ Starostin, Sergei; Dybo, Anna; Mudrak, Oleg (2003) Etymological dictionary of the Altaic languages (Handbuch der Orientalistik; VIII.8), Leiden, New York, Köln: E.J. Brill: “*ni̯ā́ŕà”
    2. 2.0 2.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    3. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (ha) (hangeul , revised ha, McCune–Reischauer ha)

    1. summer

    Compounds[edit]

    See also[edit]


    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (hạ, )

    1. summer