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See also:
U+590F, 夏
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-590F

[U+590E]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5910]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
10 strokes
Stroke order
夏-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 35, +7, 10 strokes, cangjie input 一山竹水 (MUHE), four-corner 10247, composition𦣻(GJK) or ⿱𦣻(HT))

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 245, character 12
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 5720
  • Dae Jaweon: page 485, character 29
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 869, character 10
  • Unihan data for U+590F

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Spring and Autumn Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Ancient script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
夏-bronze-shang.svg 夏-oracle.svg 夏-bronze.svg 夏-bronze-spring.svg 夏-bronze-warring.svg 夏-silk.svg 夏-slip.svg 夏-ancient.svg 夏-seal.svg 夏-bigseal.svg

In the oracle bone script, it was an ideogrammic compound (會意):  (sun) +  (head; man) – man under the scorching sun; summer.

Various variants were seen in the bronze inscriptions from the Spring and Autumn period. (“foot”) was often added to the bottom of the man. Additionally, in the form shown above, the was removed and 𦥑 (“two hands”) was added. The seal script inherits its form from this form, with replaced with the related .

Various forms were also seen from the Warring States period. The bamboo and silk script above shows a common form:  +  + . The “ancient script” (古文) from Shuowen (labelled as the large seal script) has deviated significantly, with becoming the related . The top part may be a corruption of .

The current form is simplified from the seal script, with the removal of 𦥑 and the legs from .

Etymology 1[edit]

“great; Xia Dynasty; China; Chinese”
Possibly related to (OC *kraːʔ, *kraːs, “great”), (OC *kraːʔ, “great”) and (OC *sraːs, *ɡraːʔ, “big house”) (Wang, 1980). Shi (2000) and Mair (2013) relate this word to Tibetan རྒྱ (rgya, great; wide; width; size; expanse; China).
“magnificent colours; variegated”
The sense “variegated” may be of a different origin. Compare Proto-Sino-Tibetan *Krā(H) (variegated) (Starostin), whence Tibetan བཀྲ (bkra, variegated; bright; radiant; splendid), Tibetan ཁྲ (khra, many-coloured; variegated; mottled; striped) and Burmese ကျား (kya:, variegated; striped; chequered). Possibly related to (OC *ɡraː, “horse with mixed red and white colour”).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • 3hho - vernacular;
  • 3hhia - literary.
  • Xiang

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (33)
    Final () (98)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () II
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ɦˠaX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ɦᵚaX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ɣaX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ɦaɨX/
    Li
    Rong
    /ɣaX/
    Wang
    Li
    /ɣaX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ɣaX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    xià
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    xià
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ X ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[ɢ]ˁraʔ/
    English great; pertaining to Chinese civilization

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 13452
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ɡraːʔ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. (~朝) (historical) the Xia dynasty (2070 BCE – 1600 BCE)
    2. (by extension) China; Chinese
    3. great; grand; magnificent
    4. magnificent colours; resplendent colours; variegated
    5. Alternative form of (shà, “big house”).
    6. A surname​.
    Synonyms[edit]
    • (the Xia dynasty):
    edit
    See also[edit]
    Dynasties (朝代) in Chinese history
    Name Time period Divisions
    Xia
    (~朝, ~代)
    2070 – 1600 BCE
    Shang
    (~朝, ~代)
    (~朝, ~代)
    1600 – 1046 BCE
    Zhou
    (~朝, ~代)
    1046 – 256 BCE Western Zhou
    西周
    Eastern Zhou
    東周东周
    Spring and Autumn period
    春秋
    Warring States period
    戰國战国
    Qin
    (~朝, ~代)
    221 – 206 BCE
    Han
    (~朝, ~代)
    206 BCE – 220 CE Western Han
    西漢西汉
    Xin
    (~朝)
    Eastern Han
    東漢东汉
    Three Kingdoms
    三國三国
    220 – 280 CE Wei
    Shu
    Wu
    Jin
    (~朝, ~代)
    265 – 420 CE Western Jin
    西晉西晋
    Eastern Jin
    東晉东晋
    Southern and Northern dynasties
    南北朝
    420 – 589 CE Northern dynasties
    北朝
    Northern Wei
    北魏
    Western Wei
    西魏
    Eastern Wei
    東魏东魏
    Northern Zhou
    北周
    Northern Qi
    北齊北齐
    Southern dynasties
    南朝
    Liu Song
    劉宋刘宋
    Southern Qi
    南齊南齐
    Liang
    (~朝, ~代)
    Chen
    (~朝, ~代)
    Sui
    (~朝, ~代)
    581 – 618 CE
    Tang
    (~朝, ~代)
    618 – 907 CE
    Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms
    五代十國五代十国
    907 – 960 CE
    Liao
    (~朝, ~代)
    907 – 1125 CE
    Song
    (~朝, ~代)
    960 – 1279 CE Northern Song
    北宋
    Southern Song
    南宋
    Western Xia
    西夏
    1038 – 1227 CE
    Jin
    (~朝, ~代)
    1115 – 1234 CE
    Western Liao
    西遼西辽
    1124 – 1218 CE
    Yuan
    (~朝, ~代)
    1271 – 1368 CE
    Ming
    (~朝, ~代)
    1368 – 1644 CE
    Qing
    (~朝, ~代)
    1636 – 1912 CE

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Pronunciation[edit]


    Note:
    • hē/hēe - vernacular;
    • hā/hēe - literary.
  • Wu
  • Note:
    • 3hho - vernacular;
    • 3hhia - literary.
  • Xiang

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (33)
    Final () (98)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () II
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ɦˠaH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ɦᵚaH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ɣaH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ɦaɨH/
    Li
    Rong
    /ɣaH/
    Wang
    Li
    /ɣaH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ɣaH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    xià
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    xià
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ H ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[ɡ]ˁraʔ/ (~ *[ɡ]ˁraʔ-s)
    English summer

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 13454
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ɡraːs/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. summer (season)
    Synonyms[edit]
    See also[edit]
    Seasons in Chinese · 四季 (sìjì, “four seasons”) (layout · text)
    (chūn, “spring”) (xià, “summer”) (qiū, “fall; autumn”) (dōng, “winter”)

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Pronunciation[edit]


    Definitions[edit]

    1. Alternative form of (jiǎ).
    2. Used in 陽夏阳夏.

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. summer
    2. Xia dynasty
    3. China

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia ja
    English Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia
    Kanji in this term
    なつ
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    /natu//nat͡su/

    From Old Japanese.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (なつ) (natsu

    1. summer (season)
      Synonym: 夏季, 夏期 (kaki)
      Hyponyms: 初夏, 真夏
    Derived terms[edit]
    Proverbs[edit]
    See also[edit]
    Seasons in Japanese · ()() (shiki, four seasons) (layout · text)
    (はる) (haru, spring),
    春季(しゅんき) (shunki, spring).
    春期(しゅんき) (shunki, spring period)
    (なつ) (natsu, summer),
    夏季(かき) (kaki, summer),
    夏期(かき) (kaki, summer period)
    (あき) (aki, fall; autumn),
    秋季(しゅうき) (shūki, fall; autumn),
    秋期(しゅうき) (shūki, fall period)
    (ふゆ) (fuyu, winter),
    冬季(とうき) (tōki, winter),
    冬期(とうき) (tōki, winter period)

    Proper noun[edit]

    (なつ) (Natsu

    1. a female given name
    2. a surname

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 2
    goon

    From Middle Chinese (MC ɦˠaH). The goon reading, so likely the initial borrowing.

    Also used in the Man'yōshū (759 CE) as 借音 (shakuon) kana for ⟨ge1.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    () (ge

    1. (Buddhism) summer according to the lunisolar calendar; the ninety days starting from the sixteenth day of the fourth month until the fifteenth day of the seventh month
    Derived terms[edit]
    See also[edit]

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia ja
    English Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia
    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 2
    kan’on

    From Middle Chinese (MC ɦˠaX).

    The kan'on reading, so likely a later borrowing.

    Proper noun[edit]

    () (Ka

    1. the Xia dynasty (first dynasty of China)
    2. Short for 大夏 (Daika): Xia, one of the Sixteen Kingdoms
    3. Short for 西夏 (Seika): Western Xia, an empire during the Song dynasty
    4. a surname
    5. a male or female given name

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun 여름 (yeoreum ha))

    1. Hanja form? of (summer).

    Compounds[edit]

    See also[edit]


    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (hạ, )

    1. summer