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U+590F, 夏
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-590F

[U+590E]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5910]
See also:

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
夏-bw.png

Han character[edit]

(radical 35 +7, 10 strokes, cangjie input 一山竹水 (MUHE), four-corner 10247, composition𦣻(GJK) or ⿱𦣻(HT))

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 245, character 12
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 5720
  • Dae Jaweon: page 485, character 29
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 869, character 10
  • Unihan data for U+590F

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alt. forms

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Large seal script Small seal script
夏-oracle.svg 夏-bronze.svg 夏-bigseal.svg 夏-seal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*kraːʔ
*sraːs, *ɡraːʔ
*sqʰraːs, *qraːds
*ɡraːʔ, *ɡraːs

Ideogrammic compound (會意):  (sun) +  (head; man) – man under the scorching sun; summer.(Can this(+) etymology be sourced?)

Etymology 1[edit]

“great; Xia Dynasty; China; Chinese”
Possibly related to (OC *kraːʔ, *kraːs, “great”), (OC *kraːʔ, “great”) and (OC *sraːs, *ɡraːʔ, “big house”) (Wang, 1980). Shi (2000) and Mair (2013) relate this word to Tibetan རྒྱ (rgya, great; wide; width; size; expanse; China).
“magnificent colours; variegated”
The sense “variegated” may be of a different origin. Compare Proto-Sino-Tibetan *Krā(H) (variegated) (Starostin), whence Tibetan བཀྲ (bkra, variegated; bright; radiant; splendid), Tibetan ཁྲ (khra, many-coloured; variegated; mottled; striped) and Burmese ကျား (kya:, variegated; striped; chequered). Possibly related to (OC *ɡraː, “horse with mixed red and white colour”).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • hā - literary;
  • hē/hēe - vernacular.
Note:
  • 3hho - vernacular;
  • 2xia - literary.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (33)
Final () (98)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () II
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɦˠaX/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɦᵚaX/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɣaX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɦaɨX/
Li
Rong
/ɣaX/
Wang
Li
/ɣaX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ɣaX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
xià
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
xià
Middle
Chinese
‹ X ›
Old
Chinese
/*[ɢ]ˤraʔ/
English great; pertaining to Chinese civilization

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 13452
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɡraːʔ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. (historical) () Xia Dynasty
  2. (by extension) China; Chinese
  3. great; grand; magnificent
  4. magnificent colours; resplendent colours; variegated
  5. Alternative form of (shà, “big house”).
  6. A surname​.
See also[edit]
Dynasties (朝代) in Chinese history
Name Time period Divisions
Xia
(~朝, ~代)
2070 – 1600 BCE
Shang
(~朝, ~代)
(~朝, ~代)
1600 – 1046 BCE
Zhou
(~朝, ~代)
1046 – 256 BCE Western Zhou
西周
Eastern Zhou
東周东周
Spring and Autumn period
春秋
Warring States period
戰國战国
Qin
(~朝, ~代)
221 – 206 BCE
Han
(~朝, ~代)
206 BCE – 220 CE Western Han
西漢西汉
Xin
(~朝)
Eastern Han
東漢东汉
Three Kingdoms
三國三国
220 – 280 CE Wei
Shu
Wu
Jin
(~朝, ~代)
265 – 420 CE Western Jin
西晉西晋
Eastern Jin
東晉东晋
Southern and Northern dynasties
南北朝
420 – 589 CE Northern dynasties
北朝
Northern Wei
北魏
Western Wei
西魏
Eastern Wei
東魏东魏
Northern Zhou
北周
Northern Qi
北齊北齐
Southern dynasties
南朝
Liu Song
劉宋刘宋
Southern Qi
南齊南齐
Liang
(~朝, ~代)
Chen
(~朝, ~代)
Sui
(~朝, ~代)
581 – 618 CE
Tang
(~朝, ~代)
618 – 907 CE
Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms
五代十國五代十国
907 – 960 CE
Liao
(~朝, ~代)
907 – 1125 CE
Song
(~朝, ~代)
960 – 1279 CE Northern Song
北宋
Southern Song
南宋
Western Xia
西夏
1038 – 1227 CE
Western Liao
西遼西辽
1124 – 1218 CE
Yuan
(~朝, ~代)
1271 – 1368 CE
Ming
(~朝, ~代)
1368 – 1644 CE
Qing
(~朝, ~代)
1636 – 1912 CE

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • hē - vernacular;
  • hā - literary.
Note:
  • 3hho - vernacular;
  • 2xia - literary.

Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (33)
Final () (98)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () II
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɦˠaH/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɦᵚaH/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɣaH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɦaɨH/
Li
Rong
/ɣaH/
Wang
Li
/ɣaH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ɣaH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
xià
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
xià
Middle
Chinese
‹ H ›
Old
Chinese
/*[ɡ]ˤraʔ/ (~ *[ɡ]ˤraʔ-s)
English summer

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 13454
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɡraːs/

Definitions[edit]

  1. summer (season)
See also[edit]
Seasons in Chinese · 四季 (sìjì) (layout · text)
(chūn, “spring”) (“summer”) (qiū, “fall; autumn”) (dōng, “winter”)

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Definitions[edit]

  1. Only used in 夏楚 (“ancient punishment instrument”).

References[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. summer

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Possibly from Proto-Altaic *ni̯ā́ŕà (young; spring, summer) (compare Korean 여름 (yeoreum, summer), Proto-Turkic *jāŕ (summer) (Turkish yaz).[1].

Pronunciation[edit]

Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
Kanji in this term
なつ
Grade: 2
kun'yomi

Noun[edit]

(hiragana なつ, romaji natsu)

  1. summer (season)

Synonyms[edit]

See also[edit]

Seasons in Japanese ·  () () (shiki) (layout · text)
 (はる) (haru, spring)  (なつ) (natsu, summer)  (あき) (aki, fall; autumn)  (ふゆ) (fuyu, winter)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Starostin, Sergei; Dybo, Anna; Mudrak, Oleg (2003) Etymological dictionary of the Altaic languages (Handbuch der Orientalistik; VIII.8), Leiden, New York, Köln: E.J. Brill: “*ni̯ā́ŕà”

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(ha) (hangeul , revised ha, McCune-Reischauer ha)

  1. summer

compounds[edit]

See also[edit]


Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(hạ, , thủy)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.