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Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
夏-bw.png

Etymology[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script
夏-oracle.svg

Pictogram (象形): Originally a walking human figure, representing a "great" man. "Summer" is a later borrowed meaning.

Han character[edit]

(radical 35 +7, 10 strokes, cangjie input 一山竹水 (MUHE), four-corner 10247, composition𦣻)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 245, character 12
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 5720
  • Dae Jaweon: page 485, character 29
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 869, character 10
  • Unihan data for U+590F

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Etymology 1[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/2

Initial: (33)
Final: (98)
Tone: Rising (X)

Openness: Open
Division: II
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: xià
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/ɦɣaX/ /ɦɯaX/ /ɣaX/ /ɦaɨX/ /ɣaX/ /ɣaX/ /ɣaX/
Character (), Pronunciation 2/2

Initial: (33)
Final: (98)
Tone: Departing (H)

Openness: Open
Division: II
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: xià
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/ɦɣaH/ /ɦɯaH/ /ɣaH/ /ɦaɨH/ /ɣaH/ /ɣaH/ /ɣaH/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
xià ‹ X › /*[ɢ]ˤraʔ/ great; pertaining to Chinese civilization
xià ‹ H › /*[ɡ]ˤraʔ (~ *[ɡ]ˤraʔ-s)/ summer

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
13452 0 /*ɡraːʔ/
13454 0 /*ɡraːs/

Definitions[edit]

  1. summer
  2. great, grand
  3. the Xia Dynasty
  4. A surname​.

Compounds[edit]

See also[edit]

Seasons in Chinese · 四季 (sìjì, “four seasons”) (layout · text)
(chūn, “spring”) (“summer”) (qiū, “fall; autumn”) (dōng, “winter”)

Etymology 2[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]


Definitions[edit]

  1. Only used in 夏楚.

References[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. summer

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia ja

Kanji in this term
なつ
Grade: 2
kun'yomi

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana なつ, romaji natsu)

  1. summer (season)

Synonyms[edit]

See also[edit]

Seasons in Japanese ·  () () ‎(shiki, four seasons) (layout · text)
 (はる) ‎(haru, spring)  (なつ) ‎(natsu, summer)  (あき) ‎(aki, fall; autumn)  (ふゆ) ‎(fuyu, winter)

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(ha) (hangeul , revised ha, McCune-Reischauer ha)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

See also[edit]


Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(hạ, , thủy)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.