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U+590F, 夏
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-590F

[U+590E]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5910]
See also:

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
10 strokes
Stroke order
夏-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 35 +7, 10 strokes, cangjie input 一山竹水 (MUHE), four-corner 10247, composition𦣻(GJK) or ⿱𦣻(HT))

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 245, character 12
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 5720
  • Dae Jaweon: page 485, character 29
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 869, character 10
  • Unihan data for U+590F

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alt. forms

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bamboo and silk script Large seal script Small seal script
夏-oracle.svg 夏-bronze.svg 夏-silk.svg 夏-bigseal.svg 夏-seal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*kraːʔ
*sraːs, *ɡraːʔ
*sqʰraːs, *qraːds
*ɡraːʔ, *ɡraːs

In the oracle bone script, it was an ideogrammic compound (會意):  (sun) +  (head; man) – man under the scorching sun; summer.

Various variants were seen in the bronze inscriptions from the Spring and Autumn period. (“foot”) was often added to the bottom of the man. Additionally, in the form shown above, the was removed and 𦥑 (“two hands”) was added. The seal script inherits its form from this form, with replaced with the related .

Various forms were also seen from the Warring States period. The bamboo and silk script above shows a common form:  +  + . The “ancient script” (古文) from Shuowen (labelled as the large seal script) has deviated significantly, with becoming the related . The top part may be a corruption of .

The current form is simplified from the seal script, with the removal of 𦥑 and the legs from .

Etymology 1[edit]

“great; Xia Dynasty; China; Chinese”
Possibly related to (OC *kraːʔ, *kraːs, “great”), (OC *kraːʔ, “great”) and (OC *sraːs, *ɡraːʔ, “big house”) (Wang, 1980). Shi (2000) and Mair (2013) relate this word to Tibetan རྒྱ (rgya, great; wide; width; size; expanse; China).
“magnificent colours; variegated”
The sense “variegated” may be of a different origin. Compare Proto-Sino-Tibetan *Krā(H) (variegated) (Starostin), whence Tibetan བཀྲ (bkra, variegated; bright; radiant; splendid), Tibetan ཁྲ (khra, many-coloured; variegated; mottled; striped) and Burmese ကျား (kya:, variegated; striped; chequered). Possibly related to (OC *ɡraː, “horse with mixed red and white colour”).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • 3hho - vernacular;
  • 2xia - literary.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (33)
Final () (98)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () II
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɦˠaX/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɦᵚaX/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɣaX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɦaɨX/
Li
Rong
/ɣaX/
Wang
Li
/ɣaX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ɣaX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
xià
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
xià
Middle
Chinese
‹ X ›
Old
Chinese
/*[ɢ]ˤraʔ/
English great; pertaining to Chinese civilization

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 13452
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɡraːʔ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. (~朝) (historical) Xia Dynasty
  2. (by extension) China; Chinese
  3. great; grand; magnificent
  4. magnificent colours; resplendent colours; variegated
  5. Alternative form of (shà, “big house”).
  6. A surname​.
See also[edit]
Dynasties (朝代) in Chinese history
Name Time period Divisions
Xia
(~朝, ~代)
2070 – 1600 BCE
Shang
(~朝, ~代)
(~朝, ~代)
1600 – 1046 BCE
Zhou
(~朝, ~代)
1046 – 256 BCE Western Zhou
西周
Eastern Zhou
東周东周
Spring and Autumn period
春秋
Warring States period
戰國战国
Qin
(~朝, ~代)
221 – 206 BCE
Han
(~朝, ~代)
206 BCE – 220 CE Western Han
西漢西汉
Xin
(~朝)
Eastern Han
東漢东汉
Three Kingdoms
三國三国
220 – 280 CE Wei
Shu
Wu
Jin
(~朝, ~代)
265 – 420 CE Western Jin
西晉西晋
Eastern Jin
東晉东晋
Southern and Northern dynasties
南北朝
420 – 589 CE Northern dynasties
北朝
Northern Wei
北魏
Western Wei
西魏
Eastern Wei
東魏东魏
Northern Zhou
北周
Northern Qi
北齊北齐
Southern dynasties
南朝
Liu Song
劉宋刘宋
Southern Qi
南齊南齐
Liang
(~朝, ~代)
Chen
(~朝, ~代)
Sui
(~朝, ~代)
581 – 618 CE
Tang
(~朝, ~代)
618 – 907 CE
Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms
五代十國五代十国
907 – 960 CE
Liao
(~朝, ~代)
907 – 1125 CE
Song
(~朝, ~代)
960 – 1279 CE Northern Song
北宋
Southern Song
南宋
Western Xia
西夏
1038 – 1227 CE
Jin
(~朝, ~代)
1115 – 1234 CE
Western Liao
西遼西辽
1124 – 1218 CE
Yuan
(~朝, ~代)
1271 – 1368 CE
Ming
(~朝, ~代)
1368 – 1644 CE
Qing
(~朝, ~代)
1636 – 1912 CE

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • hē/hēe - vernacular;
  • hā/hēe - literary.
Note:
  • 3hho - vernacular;
  • 2xia - literary.

Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (33)
Final () (98)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () II
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɦˠaH/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɦᵚaH/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɣaH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɦaɨH/
Li
Rong
/ɣaH/
Wang
Li
/ɣaH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ɣaH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
xià
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
xià
Middle
Chinese
‹ H ›
Old
Chinese
/*[ɡ]ˤraʔ/ (~ *[ɡ]ˤraʔ-s)
English summer

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 13454
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɡraːs/

Definitions[edit]

  1. summer (season)
See also[edit]
Seasons in Chinese · 四季 (sìjì) (layout · text)
(chūn, “spring”) (“summer”) (qiū, “fall; autumn”) (dōng, “winter”)

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Definitions[edit]

  1. Alternative form of (jiǎ).
  2. Used in 陽夏阳夏.

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. summer

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Possibly from Proto-Altaic *ni̯ā́ŕà (young; spring, summer) (compare Korean 여름 (yeoreum, summer), Proto-Turkic *jāŕ (summer) (Turkish yaz)).[1].

Pronunciation[edit]

Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
Kanji in this term
なつ
Grade: 2
kun'yomi

Noun[edit]

(hiragana なつ, rōmaji natsu)

  1. summer (season)

Synonyms[edit]

See also[edit]

Seasons in Japanese ·  () () (shiki) (layout · text)
 (はる) (haru, spring)  (なつ) (natsu, summer)  (あき) (aki, fall; autumn)  (ふゆ) (fuyu, winter)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Starostin, Sergei; Dybo, Anna; Mudrak, Oleg (2003) Etymological dictionary of the Altaic languages (Handbuch der Orientalistik; VIII.8), Leiden, New York, Köln: E.J. Brill: “*ni̯ā́ŕà”

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(ha) (hangeul , revised ha, McCune-Reischauer ha)

  1. summer

compounds[edit]

See also[edit]


Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(hạ, , thủy)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.