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Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
夏-bw.png

Etymology[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Large seal script Small seal script
夏-oracle.svg 夏-bronze.svg 夏-bigseal.svg 夏-seal.svg

Pictogram (象形): Originally a walking human figure, representing a "great" man. "Summer" is a later borrowed meaning.

Han character[edit]

(radical 35 +7, 10 strokes, cangjie input 一山竹水 (MUHE), four-corner 10247, composition𦣻)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 245, character 12
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 5720
  • Dae Jaweon: page 485, character 29
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 869, character 10
  • Unihan data for U+590F

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Etymology 1[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Initial () (33) (33)
Final () (98) (98)
Tone (調) Rising (X) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open Open
Division () II II
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɦˠaX/ /ɦˠaH/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɦᵚaX/ /ɦᵚaH/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɣaX/ /ɣaH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɦaɨX/ /ɦaɨH/
Li
Rong
/ɣaX/ /ɣaH/
Wang
Li
/ɣaX/ /ɣaH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ɣaX/ /ɣaH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
xià xià
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
xià xià
Middle
Chinese
‹ X › ‹ H ›
Old
Chinese
/*[ɢ]ˤraʔ/ /*[ɡ]ˤraʔ/ (~ *[ɡ]ˤraʔ-s)
English great; pertaining to Chinese civilization summer

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
No. 13452 13454
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0 0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɡraːʔ/ /*ɡraːs/

Definitions[edit]

  1. summer
  2. great, grand
  3. the Xia Dynasty
  4. A surname​.

Compounds[edit]

See also[edit]

Seasons in Chinese · 四季 (sìjì) (layout · text)
(chūn, “spring”) (“summer”) (qiū, “fall; autumn”) (dōng, “winter”)

Etymology 2[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]


Definitions[edit]

  1. Only used in 夏楚.

References[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. summer

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia ja

Kanji in this term
なつ
Grade: 2
kun'yomi

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana なつ, romaji natsu)

  1. summer (season)

Synonyms[edit]

See also[edit]

Seasons in Japanese ·  () () ‎(shiki) (layout · text)
 (はる) ‎(haru, spring)  (なつ) ‎(natsu, summer)  (あき) ‎(aki, fall; autumn)  (ふゆ) ‎(fuyu, winter)

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(ha) (hangeul , revised ha, McCune-Reischauer ha)

  1. summer

compounds[edit]

See also[edit]


Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(hạ, , thủy)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.