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Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 38 +2, 5 strokes, cangjie input 女弓竹尸 (VNHS), four-corner 47427, composition)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: not present, would follow page 255, character 2
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 6043
  • Dae Jaweon: page 518, character 3
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 1024, character 6
  • Unihan data for U+5976

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Etymology[edit]

Unknown.

The old form was . Similar words in the area include Proto-Hmong-Mien *niaʔ²ᴰ ‎(mother), Tibetan ཨ་ནེ ‎(a ne), ནེ་ནེ ‎(ne ne, paternal aunt), Khmer ញី ‎(nhi, female). It may be comparable with Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s-nja-n ‎(breast; milk; suck), whence Sichuan Yi ‎(nyip, liquid milk), ꀉꆂ ‎(ax nie, breast; milk).

It is unknown how the Min forms relate to forms in other dialects. See this article for a discussion of the Min Nan etymon. For similar nasalisations in Min, compare (ěr).

Colloquial words in different Min dialects show considerable variation – most have an n- initial, but finals and tones differ greatly (although the tone is never a rising tone). Some propose that this is substrate influence, passed on from the maternal Baiyue lineages since the intermarriages between southward-migrating Han Chinese and native non-Han women. Other southern dialects also show remnants of this native word: Hakka [Meixian] nɛn5, Cantonese [Guangzhou] nin1 ( or 𢆡). Compare Thai นม ‎(nom, breast; breastmilk), Zhuang noemz ‎(breast; breastmilk).

The long-recognised Sino-Tibetan etymon in Chinese is (); see there for more.

Pronunciation[edit]



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /nai²¹⁴/
Harbin /nai²¹³/
/nai⁴⁴/ ~孩子
Tianjin /nai¹³/
Jinan /nɛ⁵⁵/
Qingdao /nɛ⁵⁵/
Zhengzhou /nai⁵³/
Xi'an /nai⁵³/
Xining /nɛ⁵³/
Yinchuan /nɛ⁵³/
Lanzhou /lɛ⁴⁴²/
Ürümqi /nai⁵¹/
Wuhan /nai⁴²/
Chengdu /nai⁵³/
/nai⁵⁵/
Guiyang /nai⁴²/ 牛~
/nai⁵⁵/ 祖母
Kunming /næ⁵³/
Nanjing /lae³¹/
/lae²¹²/
Hefei /le̞²⁴/
Jin Taiyuan /nai⁵³/
Pingyao /næ⁵³/
Hohhot /nɛ⁵³/
Wu Shanghai /na²³/
Suzhou /nɑ³¹/
Hangzhou /ne̞³³/
/ne̞⁵³/
Wenzhou /na³⁵/
Hui Shexian /na³²⁴/
Tunxi /ȵiɛ¹¹/ 吃~
Xiang Changsha /lai⁴¹/
Xiangtan /nai⁴²/
Gan Nanchang /lai²¹³/
Hakka Meixian /nai⁴⁴/
Taoyuan
Cantonese Guangzhou /nai²³/
Nanning /nai²⁴/
/nai⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /nai¹³/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /nai⁵³/
/ne⁵³/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /nɛ³²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /nai²¹/
/nai³³/
Shantou (Min Nan) /nãi⁵³/
/nĩ³⁵/
/nĩ³³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /nai²¹³/ ~粉
/ne²³/
/ni³¹/ ~媽

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Initial () (8) (12)
Final () (39) (31)
Tone (調) Rising (X) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open Open
Division () IV II
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/neiX/ /ɳˠɛX/
Pan
Wuyun
/neiX/ /ɳᵚæX/
Shao
Rongfen
/nɛiX/ /næiX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/nɛjX/ /ɳaɨjX/
Li
Rong
/neiX/ /nɛX/
Wang
Li
/nieiX/ /naiX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/nieiX/ /naiX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
nǎi
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 9341
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
2
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*rneːlʔ/
Notes

Definitions[edit]

  1. woman’s breasts
  2. milk
  3. to nurse
  4. to breastfeed
  5. infant; infantile

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(uncommon “Hyōgai” kanji)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Readings[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(nae) (hangeul , revised nae, McCune-Reischauer nae)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(nãi, nái)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.