Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to navigation Jump to search
See also:
U+5976, 奶
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5976

[U+5975]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5977]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
5 strokes

Han character[edit]

(Kangxi radical 38, +2, 5 strokes, cangjie input 女弓竹尸 (VNHS), four-corner 47427, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: not present, would follow page 255, character 2
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 6043
  • Dae Jaweon: page 518, character 3
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 1024, character 6
  • Unihan data for U+5976

Chinese[edit]

Glyph origin[edit]

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *rneːlʔ): semantic + phonetic (OC *nɯːʔ).

Etymology 1[edit]

trad.
simp. #
alternative forms
𬂌 Min Dong

Unknown.

Similar words in the area include Proto-Hmong-Mien *niaʔ²ᴰ (mother), Tibetan ཨ་ནེ (a ne), ནེ་ནེ (ne ne, paternal aunt), Khmer ញី (ñii, female). It may be comparable with Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s-nja-n (breast; milk; suck), whence Sichuan Yi (nyip, liquid milk), ꀉꆂ (ax nie, breast; milk).

It is unknown how the Min forms relate to forms in other dialects. See this article for a discussion of the Min Nan etymon. For similar nasalisations in Min, compare (ěr).

Colloquial words in different Min dialects show considerable variation – most have an n- initial, but finals and tones differ greatly. Some propose that this is substrate influence, passed on from the maternal Baiyue lineages since the intermarriages between southward-migrating Han Chinese and native non-Han women. Other southern dialects also show remnants of this native word: Hakka [Meixian] nɛn5, Cantonese [Guangzhou] nin1 (𢆡). Compare Thai นม (nom, breast; breastmilk), Zhuang noemz (breast; breastmilk).

The long-recognised Sino-Tibetan etymon in Chinese is (OC *njoʔ); see there for more.

Pronunciation[edit]


Note: lai1 - only used in 奶子 (“paternal grandmother”).
Note:
  • Sixian:
    • nen - colloquial;
    • nâi - literary.
  • Meixian:
    • nên4 - colloquial;
    • nai1 - literary.
  • Jin
  • Min Bei
  • Note: nâing - colloquial.
    Note:
    • nĕng - colloquial (“breast”);
    • nèng - colloquial (“breastmilk”);
    • nā̤ - colloquial;
    • nāi - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • ni/lin/leng - colloquial (“breast; milk; milk-like beverage; rubber; handle”);
    • nee/ne - colloquial (“breast; milk”);
    • nái - literary.
    Note:
    • ni6 - colloquial;
    • ni1 - colloquial;
    • nai2 - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /nai²¹⁴/
    Harbin /nai²¹³/
    /nai⁴⁴/ ~孩子
    Tianjin /nai¹³/
    Jinan /nɛ⁵⁵/
    Qingdao /nɛ⁵⁵/
    Zhengzhou /nai⁵³/
    Xi'an /nai⁵³/
    Xining /nɛ⁵³/
    Yinchuan /nɛ⁵³/
    Lanzhou /lɛ⁴⁴²/
    Ürümqi /nai⁵¹/
    Wuhan /nai⁴²/
    Chengdu /nai⁵³/
    /nai⁵⁵/
    Guiyang /nai⁴²/ 牛~
    /nai⁵⁵/ 祖母
    Kunming /næ⁵³/
    Nanjing /lae³¹/
    /lae²¹²/
    Hefei /le̞²⁴/
    Jin Taiyuan /nai⁵³/
    Pingyao /næ⁵³/
    Hohhot /nɛ⁵³/
    Wu Shanghai /na²³/
    Suzhou /nɑ³¹/
    Hangzhou /ne̞³³/
    /ne̞⁵³/
    Wenzhou /na³⁵/
    Hui Shexian /na³²⁴/
    Tunxi /ȵiɛ¹¹/ 吃~
    Xiang Changsha /lai⁴¹/
    Xiangtan /nai⁴²/
    Gan Nanchang /lai²¹³/
    Hakka Meixian /nai⁴⁴/
    Taoyuan
    Cantonese Guangzhou /nai²³/
    Nanning /nai²⁴/
    /nai⁵⁵/
    Hong Kong /nai¹³/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /nai⁵³/
    /ni⁵³/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /nɛ³²/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /nai²¹/
    /nai³³/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /nãi⁵³/
    /nĩ³⁵/
    /nĩ³³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /nai²¹³/ ~粉
    /ne²³/
    /ni³¹/ ~媽

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    Initial () (8) (12)
    Final () (39) (31)
    Tone (調) Rising (X) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open Open
    Division () IV II
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /neiX/ /ɳˠɛX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /neiX/ /ɳᵚæX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /nɛiX/ /næiX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /nɛjX/ /ɳaɨjX/
    Li
    Rong
    /neiX/ /nɛX/
    Wang
    Li
    /nieiX/ /naiX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /nieiX/ /naiX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    nǎi
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    nai5 naai5
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 9341
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    2
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*rneːlʔ/
    Notes

    Definitions[edit]

    1. breast
      /   ―  nǎitóu  ―  nipple
    2. milk; breast milk
      / [Cantonese]  ―  jam2 naai5 [Jyutping]  ―  to drink milk
    3. to nurse
    4. to breastfeed; to suckle
    5. (in compounds) infant; infantile; milk (teeth, name, etc.)
        ―  nǎimíng  ―  childhood name
      /   ―  nǎishēngnǎi  ―  childish voice
    6. (regional) mother
    7. (regional) grandmother
    Synonyms[edit]
    • (grandmother):
    • (breast):
    • (milk):
    edit
    • () (literary, or in compounds)
    • 乳汁 (rǔzhī)
    • 唧唧 (Xiang, childish)
    • 奶唧唧 (Xiang, childish)
    • 奶奶 (Sichuanese, childish in Cantonese, Wu)
    • 奶子 (nǎizi) (dialectal, colloquial)

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    trad.
    simp. #
    alternative forms

    (This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Definitions[edit]

    1. (Hokkien) to behave in a coy, childish or coquettish manner; to coax; to weedle

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 3[edit]

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see 𦧺 (“to lick; to suck up to; to brownnose”).
    (This character, , is a variant form of 𦧺.)

    References[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (uncommon “Hyōgai” kanji)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Readings[edit]


    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun (jeot nae))

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Nôm readings: nãi, nái

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.