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Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 44 +6, 9 strokes, cangjie input 尸火木 (SFD), four-corner 77294, composition)

Synonyms[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 301, character 25
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 7689
  • Dae Jaweon: page 598, character 15
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 973, character 6
  • Unihan data for U+5C4E

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Pictogram (象形):  ‎(body) +  ‎(rice). The component was originally four dots (faeces coming out of the backside) in the oracle bone script, thus a pictogram representing a man defecating.

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *kləj ‎(excrement).

Pronunciation 1[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (26)
Final () (17)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () Chongniu III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɕɣiɪX/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɕɯiX/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɕiɪX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɕjiX/
Li
Rong
/ɕjiX/
Wang
Li
/ɕiX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ɕiX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
shǐ
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
shǐ
Middle
Chinese
‹ syijX ›
Old
Chinese
/*[qʰ]ijʔ/
English excrement

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 11399
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
2
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*hliʔ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. excrement; poop
  2. secretion from the body; tear, earwax, snot, etc.
  3. residue; waste; debris
  4. (vulgar) worthless; useless; despicable
  5. (vulgar) useless thing
See also[edit]

Pronunciation 2[edit]


Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (32)
Final () (15)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/hiɪ/
Pan
Wuyun
/hi/
Shao
Rongfen
/xjɪ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/hi/
Li
Rong
/xi/
Wang
Li
/xi/
Bernard
Karlgren
/xi/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ xjij ›
Old
Chinese
/*[qʰ]ij (dialect: *qʰ- > *x-, no palatalization)/
English moan

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 11401
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
2
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*hri/

Definitions[edit]

  1. Only used in 殿屎 (“to groan”).

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(uncommon “Hyōgai” kanji)

  1. excrement, feces, poop

Readings[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
くそ
Hyōgaiji
kun'yomi

Cognate with 臭い ‎(kusai, stinky, smelly), 腐る ‎(kusaru, to rot, to become stinky).[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana くそ, romaji kuso)

  1. (colloquial) feces, excrement
Derived terms[edit]
Idioms[edit]

Interjection[edit]

‎(hiragana くそ, romaji kuso)

  1. (expletive) crap, shit, bullshit, poop
Usage notes[edit]

This is not considered as profane as the English glosses. For instance, a child of five using the Japanese interjection kuso would be unremarkable, whereas it would be very socially inappropriate for a child of five to use the English interjection shit.

Prefix[edit]

‎(hiragana くそ, romaji kuso-)

  1. A derogatory prefix.
     (くそ) (じじ)
    kusojijī
    crappy old man

Suffix[edit]

‎(hiragana くそ, romaji -kuso)

  1. A derogatory emphasizing suffix.
    下手 (へた) (くそ)
    hetakuso
    crappy bad at something; to be shit at doing something
    襤褸 (ぼろ) (くそ)
    borokuso
    broken down for shit, raggedy-ass

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
ばば
Hyōgaiji
kun'yomi

Appears to derive from baby talk.[1][2] Compare English poopoo.

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana ばば, romaji baba)

  1. (children's word): poopoo, poop, dookie
  2. (children's word): something unclean
Idioms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  3. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(si) (hangeul , revised si, McCune-Reischauer si)

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Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(thỉ, xái)

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