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Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 61 +24, 28 strokes, cangjie input X卜金心 (XYCP) or 卜金心 (YCP), four-corner 07338, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 409, character 31
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 11525
  • Dae Jaweon: page 751, character 30
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 4, page 2373, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+6207

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Small seal script
戇-seal.svg

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *kr'oːms, *qʰloːms): phonetic  ‎(OC *kluːmʔ, *kluːms, *kromʔ, *kloːms) + semantic .

Etymology 1[edit]

“Stupid”. Attested abundantly in Old Chinese, but obsolete in modern varieties. Compared with Proto-Mon *trɔɔʔ (> Mon သ္ဒိုဟ် ‎(tɜ̀h, foolish, stupid)) by Schuessler (2007).

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Initial () (32) (9)
Final () (1) (9)
Tone (調) Departing (H) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open Open
Division () I II
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/huŋH/ /ʈˠʌŋH/
Pan
Wuyun
/huŋH/ /ʈᵚɔŋH/
Shao
Rongfen
/xuŋH/ /ȶɔŋH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/həwŋH/ /ʈaɨwŋH/
Li
Rong
/xuŋH/ /ȶɔŋH/
Wang
Li
/xuŋH/ /ȶɔŋH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/xuŋH/ /ȶɔŋH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
hèng zhuàng
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
No. 6277 6291
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
3 3
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*kr'oːms/ /*qʰloːms/

Definitions[edit]

  1. stupid
  2. blunt and tactless

Etymology 2[edit]

Dialectally preserved word for “stupid”, attested since Middle Chinese. Relationship to Etymology 1 is unknown.

Compare Proto-Central Chin *ŋoŋ (“dull, stupid”) > Mizo ngawng ‎(dull, stupid), Proto-Tai-Kadai *ŋV:ŋ.T (“stupid”) > Zhuang nguengh ‎(stupid), as well as Old Khmer lṅaṅya ‎(stupid, obtuse, ignorant) > Khmer ល្ងង់ ‎(lngông)).

Bauer (1996) suggests that this root may have entered Old Southern Chinese during the period of its early contact with Tai-speaking peoples in southern China.

Pronunciation[edit]


Definitions[edit]

  1. (Cantonese, Hakka, Min, Wu) stupid; foolish; simple; simple-minded
  2. (dialectal Mandarin) stubborn; bull-headed
  3. (dialectal Mandarin) frank; honest; straight
Synonyms[edit]
Dialectal synonyms of ("stupid")
Variety Location Words
Mandarin Beijing
Taiwan
Tianjin
Xi'an
Wuhan
Chengdu
Yangzhou 木足
Hefei
Cantonese Guangzhou
Yangjiang
Gan Nanchang
Hakka Meixian
Jin Taiyuan 二不楞
Min Dong Fuzhou
Min Nan Xiamen
Wu Shanghai
Suzhou
Wenzhou
Xiang Changsha
Shuangfeng

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(uncommon “Hyōgai” kanji)

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Readings[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(dang) (hangeul , revised dang, McCune-Reischauer tang, Yale tang)

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Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(tráng)

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