文化

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Chinese[edit]

 
language; culture; writing; formal; literary; gentle
 
to make into; to change into; -ization; to ... -ize; to transform
simp. and trad.
(文化)
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Etymology[edit]

Wasei kango (和製漢語), from Japanese 文化 (ぶんか) ‎(bunka, culture), semantically readapted from Chinese 文化 (“the way of educating by using morality, literature and music”).

Pronunciation[edit]


Middle Chinese pronunciation (文化, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/1

Initial: (4)
Final:
Division: III

Openness: Closed
Tone: Level (Ø)

Fanqie:
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/mɨun/ /mi̯uən/ /miuən/ /miun/ /mun/ /mĭuən/ /miuən/
Character (), Pronunciation 1/1

Initial: (32)
Final:
Division: II

Openness: Closed
Tone: Departing (H)

Fanqie:
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/hɣuaH/ /xwaH/ /xuaH/ /hʷɯaH/ /hwaɨH/ /xwaH/ /xuaH/
Old Chinese pronunciation (文化, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
wén ‹ mjun › /*mə[n]/ ornate
huà ‹ xwæH › /*qʷʰˤ<r>aj-s/ transform

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
13015 1 /*mɯn/
5327 1 /*hŋʷraːls/

Noun[edit]

文化 (classifier ())

  1. (countable, uncountable) culture
    文化體系 / 文化体系  ―  wénhuà tǐxì  ―  cultural system
    中華文化 / 中华文化  ―  zhōnghuá wénhuà  ―  Chinese culture
    公司文化  ―  gōngsī wénhuà  ―  company culture
    不同國家不同文化 [MSC, trad.]
    不同国家不同文化 [MSC, simp.]
    Bùtóng de guójiā yǒu bùtóng de wénhuà. [Pinyin]
    Different countries have different cultures.
  2. education; literacy

Usage notes[edit]

Like the term "culture" in English, 文化 can refer to both culture in the sense of a society's arts or customs, as well the attitudes and behaviours of a particular group of people, as in a "company culture". 文化 however cannot refer to "culture" in the biological sense; instead the term 培養培养 (péiyǎng) is used.

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic (文化):

Japanese[edit]

Kanji in this term
ぶん
Grade: 1

Grade: 3
on'yomi

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Chinese 文化 ‎(mjun xwæH, the way of educating by using morality, literature and music)

Noun[edit]

文化 ‎(hiragana ぶんか, romaji bunka)

  1. culture
    • 1928, 岸田國士, 「語られる言葉」の美:
      これは、国語 (こくご)性格 (せいかく)に、文化 (ぶんか)伝統 (でんとう)国民性 (こくみんせい)特質 (とくしつ)作用 (さよう)するからである。
      Kore wa, kokugo no seikaku ni, bunka no dentō, kokuminsei no tokushitsu ga sayō suru kara de aru.
      The tradition of culture and the traits of the nation function to make the character of the national language.

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja in this term

Noun[edit]

文化 ‎(munhwa) ‎(hangeul 문화)

  1. Hanja form? of 문화, “culture”.

Vietnamese[edit]

Hán tự in this word

Noun[edit]

文化

  1. Hán tự form of văn hóa, "culture"