文明

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Chinese[edit]

 
language; culture; writing; formal; literary; gentle
 
clear; bright; to understand; next; the Ming dynasty
simp. and trad.
(文明)
anagram 明文
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文明

Etymology[edit]

Wasei kango (和製漢語), borrowed from Japanese  (ぶん) (めい) (bunmei)

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
Initial () (4) (4)
Final () (59) (111)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Closed Open
Division () III III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/mɨun/ /mˠiæŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/miun/ /mᵚiaŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/miuən/ /miaŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/mun/ /miajŋ/
Li
Rong
/miuən/ /miɐŋ/
Wang
Li
/mĭuən/ /mĭɐŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/mi̯uən/ /mi̯ɐŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
wén míng
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
wén míng
Middle
Chinese
‹ mjun › ‹ mjæng ›
Old
Chinese
/*mə[n]/ /*mraŋ/
English ornate bright

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
No. 13015 9188
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1 0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*mɯn/ /*mraŋ/

Noun[edit]

文明

  1. civilization (Classifier: m)
    中華文明 / 中华文明  ―  zhōnghuá wénmíng  ―  Chinese civilization
    傳遞文明工具 [MSC, trad.]
    传递文明工具 [MSC, simp.]
    Shū shì chuándì wénmíng de gōngjù. [Pinyin]
    Books are the way in which civilization is transmitted.
    其他生物最大不同就是擁有文明 [MSC, trad.]
    其他生物最大不同就是拥有文明 [MSC, simp.]
    Rén yǔ qítā shēngwù zuìdà de bùtóng, jiùshì yōngyǒu wénmíng. [Pinyin]
    The ability to develop civilizations is the biggest difference between humans and other living things.
  2. civilized behaviour
    加強文明意識 / 加强文明意识  ―  jiāqiáng wénmíng yìshí  ―  to improve people's awareness of civilized behaviour

Antonyms[edit]

Adjective[edit]

文明

  1. civilized
    文明行為 / 文明行为  ―  wénmíng xíngwéi  ―  civilized behaviour
  2. (dated) modern

Adverb[edit]

文明

  1. in a civilized manner
    文明交往  ―  wénmíng jiāowǎng  ―  to socialize in a civilized manner

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic (文明):

Japanese[edit]

Wikipedia-logo.png
 文明 on Japanese Wikipedia
Kanji in this term
ぶん
Grade: 1
めい
Grade: 2
on’yomi

Etymology[edit]

Learned borrowing from Middle Chinese 文明

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

文明 (hiragana ぶんめい, rōmaji bunmei)

  1. civilization

Descendants[edit]