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Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
東-order.gif
simpl.
trad.

Etymology[edit]

Phonetic borrowing – originally represented a bag tied at both ends (like a cellophane-wrapped candy with the ends twisted), and was later borrowed phonetically to mean "east".[1] This borrowing may have been influenced by reinterpreting the character as the sun () rising behind a tree (), which is the traditional (though incorrect) etymology.

Han character[edit]

(radical 75 +4, 8 strokes, cangjie input 木田 (DW), four-corner 50906, composition)

  1. east, eastern, eastward

Coordinate terms[edit]

  • (south)
  • 西 (west)
  • (north)

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ [1]
  • KangXi: page 513, character 12
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 14499
  • Dae Jaweon: page 899, character 8
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 1165, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+6771

Cantonese[edit]

Hanzi[edit]

(simplified , Jyutping dung1, Yale dung1)


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. east

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

  • 東方 (tōhō): eastern direction
  • 東南 (tōnan): southeast
  • 東亜 (tōa): East Asia
  • 東洋 (tōyō): Orient
  • 東部 (tōbu): eastern part
  • 東西南北 (tōzainanboku): east, west, south, and north
  • 関東 (kantō): Kanto
  • 東風 (kochi): a spring wind that blows from the east

Etymology 1[edit]

/himukasi/: *pimukasi > ɸimukasi > himukashi. Compound of pi (sun), muka (facing, direction), and shi (wind, direction). Literally "the direction facing the sun".

Noun[edit]

(hiragana ひむかし, romaji himukashi)

  1. east

Etymology 2[edit]

  • pingasi > ɸingasi > hingashi. From earlier /himukasi/: *pimukasi > ɸimkasi > ɸimgasi > ɸigasi > higasi.

Noun[edit]

(hiragana ひんがし, romaji hingashi)

  1. east
    • 10th century: Ise Monogatari (chapter 4, page 82)
      むかし、東(ひんがし)の五条に大后の宮おはしましける、西の対に住む人有けり。

Etymology 3[edit]

From hingashi, from himukashi.

Noun[edit]

(hiragana ひがし, romaji higashi)

  1. east

Proper noun[edit]

(hiragana ひがし, romaji Higashi)

  1. A surname​.

Etymology 4[edit]

aduma > azuma.

Noun[edit]

(hiragana あずま, historical hiragana あづま, romaji azuma)

  1. east, Eastern Japan

Proper noun[edit]

(hiragana あずま, romaji Azuma)

  1. A male given name
  2. A surname​.

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(dong)
Eumhun:

  • Sound (hangeul):  (revised: dong, McCune-Reischauer: tong, Yale: tong)
  • Name (hangeul): 동녘 (revised: dongnyeok, McCune-Reischauer: tongnyŏk, Yale: tongnyekh)

Compounds[edit]


Mandarin[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Hanzi[edit]

(simplified , Pinyin dōng (dong1), Wade-Giles tung1)

Noun[edit]

(traditional, Pinyin dōng, simplified )

  1. east, eastern, eastward

Min Nan[edit]

Hanzi[edit]

(traditional and simplified, POJ tang (tang1) (vernacular), tong (tong1) (literary))


Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(đông, đang, tông)