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U+6771, 東
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6771

[U+6770]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6772]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
8 strokes
Stroke order
東-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 75, +4, 8 strokes, cangjie input 木田 (DW), four-corner 50906, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

Related characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 513, character 12
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 14499
  • Dae Jaweon: page 899, character 8
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 1165, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+6771

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.
Wikipedia has an article on:

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
東-oracle.svg 東-bronze.svg 東-silk.svg 東-seal.svg 東-bigseal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*toːŋ
*toːŋ
*toːŋ
*toːŋ
*toːŋ, *toːŋs
*toːŋ, *toːŋʔ
*toːŋ, *toːŋs
*toːŋ
*toːŋ
*toːŋ
*toːŋs

Phonetic borrowing – originally represented a bag tied at both ends (like a cellophane-wrapped candy with the ends twisted), and was later borrowed phonetically to mean “east”. This borrowing may have been influenced by reinterpreting the character as the sun () rising behind a tree (), which is the traditional (though incorrect) etymology, as given in Shuowen.

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • tang - colloquial;
  • tong - literary.
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (5)
    Final () (1)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /tuŋ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /tuŋ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /tuŋ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /təwŋ/
    Li
    Rong
    /tuŋ/
    Wang
    Li
    /tuŋ/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /tuŋ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    dōng
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    dōng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ tuwng ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*tˤoŋ/ (< *tˤoŋʔ ?)
    English east

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 2435
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*toːŋ/
    Notes

    Definitions[edit]

    1. east
    2. host
      /   ―  zuòdōng  ―  to be host
    3. landlord; owner
      /   ―  fángdōng  ―  landlord
      /   ―  dōng  ―  shareholder
    4. (Teochew) side

    Coordinate terms[edit]

    • (nán, “south”)
    • 西 (, “west”)
    • (běi, “north”)

    Compounds[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. east
    2. spring (Wu Xing)

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    とう
    Grade: 2
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (MC tuŋ).

    The kan'on reading, so likely a later borrowing.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Proper noun[edit]

    (hiragana とう, rōmaji )

    1. a surname
    2. Abbreviation of 関東 (Kantō): the Kantō region of Japan
    3. Abbreviation of 東国 (Tōgoku): a historical administrative division of Japan, corresponding to the modern Kantō and Tōkai regions

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    ひむかし
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    */pimukasi//fimukasi//himukaɕi/

    From Old Japanese. Found in the Man'yōshū dated 759 CE, but consistently spelled with the single kanji rather than in man'yōgana, thus leaving the reading unspecified.[1] Compound of (hi, sun) +‎ 向か (muka, facing, direction, the 未然形 (mizenkei, incomplete form) of verb 向く (muku, to face a direction)) +‎ (shi, wind, direction).[2][3]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana ひむかし, rōmaji himukashi)

    1. (obsolete) east

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    ひんがし
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    /pimukasi//pimuɡasi//fimuɡasi//finɡasi//hinɡaɕi/

    Sound shift from earlier pimukasi.[2][3] Attested in The Tale of Genji, no later than 1021 CE.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana ひんがし, rōmaji hingashi)

    1. (obsolete) east
      • 10th century, Ise Monogatari (chapter 4, page 82)[4]
        むかし、東(ひんがし)の五条に大后の宮おはしましける、西の対に住む人有けり。

    Etymology 4[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    ひがし
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    /finɡasi//hiɡaɕi/

    Sound shift from earlier hingashi. Now the standard word for east.[2][3]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana ひがし, rōmaji higashi)

    1. east
      Antonym: 西 (nishi)
    2. wind blowing from the east
      Synonym: 東風 (ayu, kochi, kochikaze, tōfū, higashikaze)
    3. (sumo) higher-ranked wrestlers listed on the right of a banzuke
      Antonym: 西 (nishi)
    4. (historical) an Eastern Bloc country
      Synonym: 東側 (higashigawa)
      Antonym: 西 (nishi)
    5. Kamakura and historical Edo, as opposed to Kyoto and Osaka
      Antonym: 西 (nishi)
    6. (theater) This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
    Derived terms[edit]

    Proper noun[edit]

    (hiragana ひがし, rōmaji Higashi)

    1. (historical) a red-light district in Edo, where it is today in Fukagawa, Kōtō Ward (as it was located east of Edo Castle)
    2. a surname
    3. a place name

    Etymology 5[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    あずま
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    /aduma//ad͡zuma//azuma/

    From Old Japanese.[2][3] Ultimate derivation unknown. A speculative origin might be a compound of (ama, sky, heavens) + (tsuma, edge, beginning), but the elision of the ma in ama does not follow normal patterns.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana あずま, rōmaji azuma, historical hiragana あづま)

    1. (archaic) east
    2. (archaic, by extension) eastern Japan
    3. Short for 東琴 (azumagoto): a six-stringed Japanese zither
    4. (archaic, possibly obsolete) the Edo area (specifically used in the Kansai region, especially around Kyōto and Ōsaka)

    Proper noun[edit]

    (hiragana あずま, rōmaji Azuma, historical hiragana あづま)

    1. a female given name
    2. a surname
    3. any of various places in Japan

    (hiragana あづま, rōmaji Azuma)

    1. a female given name
    2. a surname

    Etymology 6[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    とん
    Grade: 2
    Irregular

    Borrowed from Chinese , borrowed specifically as mahjong terminology. Compare Wu (ton), Hakka (tûng), Min Nan (tong).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (katakana トン, rōmaji ton)

    1. (mahjong) east wind (mahjong tile)
      Hypernym: 風牌 (kazehai, fanpai)
    2. (mahjong) a (yaku, winning hand) with a triplet or quad of east wind tiles; depending on wind round and player's seat wind, it is worth either 1 or 2 (han, doubles)
      Hypernym: 役牌 (yakuhai, yaku-pai)
    Derived terms[edit]
    See also[edit]

    Proper noun[edit]

    (hiragana とん, rōmaji Ton)

    1. A surname​.

    Etymology 7[edit]

    Other various nanori readings.

    Proper noun[edit]

    (hiragana あきら, rōmaji Akira)

    1. A surname​.
    2. A male given name

    (hiragana あず, rōmaji Azu)

    1. A female given name
    2. A surname​.

    (hiragana あずきよ, rōmaji Azukiyo)

    1. A female given name

    (hiragana こちざき, rōmaji Kochizaki)

    1. A surname​.

    (hiragana さき, rōmaji Saki)

    1. A female given name

    (hiragana たかとう, rōmaji Takatō)

    1. A surname​.

    (hiragana とうあ, rōmaji Tōa)

    1. A surname​.

    (hiragana とうはま, rōmaji Tōhama)

    1. A surname​.

    (hiragana のぼる, rōmaji Noboru)

    1. A male given name

    (hiragana はじめ, rōmaji Hajime)

    1. A surname​.
    2. A male given name

    (hiragana ひがしつる, rōmaji Higashitsuru)

    1. A surname​.

    References[edit]

    1. ^ c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 1, poem 48), text here
    2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    4. ^ Horiuchi, Hideaki; Ken Akiyama (1997) Taketori Monogatari, Ise Monogatari, Tōkyō: Iwanami Shoten, →ISBN
    5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (dong)

    1. east; eastern

    Compounds[edit]


    Okinawan[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    Readings[edit]

    • Native: く (ku), くち (kuchi), あがり (agari)
    • Nonnative: とー (tō), とぅ (tu)

    Compounds[edit]

    • 東風 (くち, kuchi): east wind, easterly wind, eastern wind
    • 東風 (くちかじ, kuchikaji): east wind, easterly wind, eastern wind
    • 東京 (とーちょー, tōchō): Tokyo
    • 広東瓜 (くゎんとぅうい, kwantuui): watermelon

    Etymology[edit]

    From 上り (agari, ascent, rise) in reference to the direction where the sun rises, ascends.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana あがり, romaji agari)

    1. east

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (đông, đang)

    1. east; eastern

    Yoron[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    Readings[edit]

    • Native: あがり (agari)

    Etymology[edit]

    From 上り (agari, ascent, rise) in reference to the direction where the sun rises, ascends.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana あがり, romaji agari)

    1. east