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U+6771, 東
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6771

[U+6770]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6772]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
8 strokes
Stroke order
東-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 75, +4, 8 strokes, cangjie input 木田 (DW), four-corner 50906, composition or ⿻)

Derived characters[edit]

Related characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 513, character 12
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 14499
  • Dae Jaweon: page 899, character 8
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 1165, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+6771

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.
Wikipedia has articles on:

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
東-bronze-shang.svg 東-oracle.svg 東-bronze.svg 東-silk.svg 東-seal.svg 東-bigseal.svg

Phonetic borrowing – originally represented a bag tied at both ends (like a cellophane-wrapped candy with the ends twisted), and was later borrowed phonetically to mean “east”. This borrowing may have been influenced by reinterpreting the character as the sun () rising behind a tree (), which is the traditional (though incorrect) etymology, as given in Shuowen.

Etymology[edit]

Cognate with Chepang थोङ्‌सा (thoŋ‑, lighten; be bright) and Chepang थोङ्‌ह (thoŋh, awake time (as opposed to dream time)) (Schuessler, 2007). Perhaps related to or influenced by (OC *tʰuːn, “rising sun”).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • dĕ̤ng - colloquial;
  • dŭng - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • tang - colloquial;
    • tong - literary.
    Note:
    • dang1 - colloquial;
    • dong1 - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (5)
    Final () (1)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /tuŋ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /tuŋ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /tuŋ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /təwŋ/
    Li
    Rong
    /tuŋ/
    Wang
    Li
    /tuŋ/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /tuŋ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    dōng
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    dōng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ tuwng ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*tˁoŋ/ (< *tˁoŋʔ ?)
    English east

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 2435
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*toːŋ/
    Notes

    Definitions[edit]

    1. east
    2. host
      /   ―  zuòdōng  ―  to be host
    3. landlord; owner
      /   ―  fángdōng  ―  landlord
      /   ―  dōng  ―  shareholder
    4. (Teochew) side

    Coordinate terms[edit]

    • (compass points)
    西北 東北
    西 Compass rose simple plain.svg
    西南 東南


    Descendants[edit]

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: (とう) ()
    • Korean: (, dong)
    • Vietnamese: đông ()

    Others:

    • Japanese: (トン) (ton, east wind (mahjong tile))

    Compounds[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    ひがし
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    /ɸiŋɡaɕi//ɸiɡaɕi//hiɡaɕi/

    Sound shift from hingashi (see Etymology 2 below).

    Now the standard word for east.[1][2]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (ひがし) (higashi

    1. the east (compass point)
      Antonym: 西 (nishi)
    2. the Orient
      Synonym: 東洋 (tōyō)
    3. an easterly (wind blowing from the east)
      Synonym: 東風 (kochi, kochikaze, tōfū, higashikaze)
    4. (sumo) higher-ranked wrestlers listed on the right of a banzuke
      Antonym: 西 (nishi)
    5. an Eastern Bloc country
      Synonym: 東側 (higashigawa)
      Antonym: 西 (nishi)
    6. (regional, historical) Kamakura and/or Edo, as opposed to Kyoto and Osaka
      Antonym: 西 (nishi)
    7. (theater) This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
    Coordinate terms[edit]
    • (compass points)
    西北(せいほく) (seihoku)/北西(ほくせい) (hokusei) (きた) (kita) 東北(とうほく) (tōhoku)/北東(ほくとう) (hokutō)
    西(にし) (nishi) Compass rose simple plain.svg (ひがし) (higashi)
    西南(せいなん) (seinan)/南西(なんせい) (nansei) (みなみ) (minami) 東南(とうなん) (tōnan)/南東(なんとう) (nantō)


    Derived terms[edit]
    Descendants[edit]

    Proper noun[edit]

    (ひがし) (Higashi

    1. (historical) a red-light district in Edo located east of Edo Castle (today in Fukagawa, Kōtō Ward)
    2. (Buddhism) Short for 東本願寺 (Higashi Hongan-ji): a Buddhist temple in Kyoto
    3. a placename, especially the name of a ward in various cities throughout Japan
    4. a surname
    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    ひんがし
    Grade: 2
    Irregular

    *⟨pi1 muka si⟩ → */pʲimukasi//pimʉɡasi//ɸimʉɡaɕi//ɸiŋɡaɕi//hiŋɡaɕi/

    Shift from Old Japanese (*pi1mukasi).[1][2].

    Noun[edit]

    (ひんがし) (hingashi

    1. (archaic, obsolete) the east
    Citations[edit]

    For quotations of use of this term, see Citations:東.

    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    あずま
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi
    Alternative spellings 吾妻
    吾嬬

    ⟨aduma⟩/ad͡zuma//azuma/

    From Old Japanese,[1][2] itself of unknown derivation.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (あずま) (azuma (historical kana あづま)

    1. (archaic) the east
    2. (archaic) the lands east of the (miyako, imperial capital)
    3. (regional, historical) during the Kamakura and Muromachi periods, the Kamakura region or its titular 幕府 (bakufu, shogunate), as opposed to the imperial capital of Kyoto
    4. (regional, historical) during the Edo period, the region around Edo
    5. Short for 東つ (azumatsu): This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
    6. Short for 東琴 (azumagoto): a six-stringed Japanese zither
    7. Short for 東下駄 (azumageta): This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
    Derived terms[edit]

    Proper noun[edit]

    (あずま) (Azuma (historical kana あづま)

    1. a placename
    2. a female given name
    3. a surname

    Etymology 4[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    とう
    Grade: 2
    kan’on

    From Middle Chinese (MC tuŋ).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Proper noun[edit]

    (とう) (

    1. Short for 関東 (Kantō):: the Kantō region of Japan
    2. Short for 東国 (Tōgoku): a historical administrative division of Japan, corresponding to the modern Kantō and Tōkai regions
    3. Short for 東京 (Tōkyō): Tokyo
    4. a surname
    Derived terms[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (とう) (

    1. (music) This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Affix[edit]

    (とう) (

    1. east

    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 5[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    とん
    Grade: 2
    Irregular

    From Mandarin (dōng).

    Compare Wu (ton), Hakka (tûng), Min Nan (tong).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (トン) (ton

    1. (mahjong) east wind (mahjong tile)
      Hypernym: 風牌 (kazehai, fanpai)
    2. (mahjong) a (yaku, winning hand) with a triplet or quad of east wind tiles; depending on wind round and player's seat wind, it is worth either 1 or 2 (han, doubles)
      Hypernym: 役牌 (yakuhai, yaku-pai)
    Derived terms[edit]
    See also[edit]

    Proper noun[edit]

    (とん) (Ton

    1. a surname

    Etymology 6[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    Grade: 2
    nanori

    Nominalization of the stem of adjective 明らか (akiraka, clear).

    Proper noun[edit]

    (あきら) (Akira

    1. a surname
    2. a male given name

    Etymology 7[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    Grade: 2
    nanori

    Nominalization of verb 上る, 登る (noboru, to ascend, rise).

    Proper noun[edit]

    (のぼる) (Noboru

    1. a male given name

    Etymology 8[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    Grade: 2
    nanori

    Nominalization of the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, stem or continuative form) of verb 始める (hajimeru, to begin, start).

    Proper noun[edit]

    (はじめ) (Hajime

    1. a surname
    2. a male given name

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC tuŋ). Recorded as Middle Korean 도ᇰ (Yale: twong) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

    Hanja[edit]

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 동녘 (dongnyeok dong))

    1. Hanja form? of (east; eastern).

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

    Okinawan[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    あがり
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    From 上り (agari, ascent, rise) in reference to the direction where the sun rises or ascends.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana あがり, rōmaji agari)

    1. east

    Old Japanese[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    • 東風 (ayu, *koti, *kotikaze)

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Ultimate derivation unknown.

    A speculative origin might be a compound of (ama, sky, heavens, combining form) +‎ (tuma, edge, beginning), but the elision of the ma in ama does not follow normal patterns.

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (aduma) (kana あづま)

    1. the east
    2. the lands east of the (mi1yako1, imperial capital)
    Citations[edit]

    For quotations of use of this term, see Citations:東.

    Descendants[edit]
    • Japanese: (azuma)

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Found in one poem of the Man'yōshū (c. 759 CE), but consistently spelled with this single kanji rather than in man'yōgana, thus leaving the reading unspecified.

    Originally a compound of (pi1, sun) +‎ 向か (muka, the 未然形 (mizenkei, incomplete form) of verb 向く (muku), “to face a direction).[1][2] The final -si is possibly either the (si) affix meaning “wind”, or a suffix indicating direction as in (mukasi, past).

    Noun[edit]

    (*pi1mukasi) (kana ひむかし)

    1. the east
    Citations[edit]

    For quotations of use of this term, see Citations:東.

    Descendants[edit]
    • Japanese: (hingashi → higashi)
    See also[edit]

    References[edit]

    1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (đông, đang)

    1. east; eastern

    Yoron[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    From 上り (agari, ascent, rise) in reference to the direction where the sun rises or ascends.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana あがり, romaji agari)

    1. east