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See also: and
U+6771, 東
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6771

[U+6770]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6772]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
東-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 75 +4, 8 strokes, cangjie input 木田 (DW), four-corner 50906, composition)

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 513, character 12
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 14499
  • Dae Jaweon: page 899, character 8
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 1165, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+6771

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bamboo and silk script Large seal script Small seal script
東-oracle.svg 東-bronze.svg 東-silk.svg 東-bigseal.svg 東-seal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
toːŋ
toːŋ
toːŋ
toːŋ
toːŋ, *toːŋs
toːŋ, *toːŋʔ
toːŋ, *toːŋs
toːŋ
toːŋ
toːŋ
toːŋs

Phonetic borrowing – originally represented a bag tied at both ends (like a cellophane-wrapped candy with the ends twisted), and was later borrowed phonetically to mean “east”. This borrowing may have been influenced by reinterpreting the character as the sun () rising behind a tree (), which is the traditional (though incorrect) etymology, as given in Shuowen.

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • tang - colloquial;
  • tong - literary.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (5)
Final () (1)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/tuŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/tuŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/tuŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/təwŋ/
Li
Rong
/tuŋ/
Wang
Li
/tuŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/tuŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
dōng
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
dōng
Middle
Chinese
‹ tuwng ›
Old
Chinese
/*tˤoŋ/ (< *tˤoŋʔ ?)
English east

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 2435
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*toːŋ/
Notes

Definitions[edit]

  1. east
  2. host
    /   ―  zuòdōng  ―  to be host
  3. landlord; owner
    /   ―  fángdōng  ―  landlord
    /   ―  dōng  ―  shareholder

Coordinate terms[edit]

  • (nán, “south”)
  • 西 (, “west”)
  • (běi, “north”)

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. east

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
とう
Grade: 2
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese (MC tuŋ). The kan'on reading, so likely a later borrowing.

Pronunciation[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

(hiragana とう, rōmaji )

  1. A surname​.
  2. Abbreviation of 関東 (Kantō): the Kantō region of Japan
  3. Abbreviation of 東国 (Tōgoku): an historical administrative division of Japan, corresponding to the modern Kantō and Tōkai regions

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
ひむかし
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

*/pimukasi//fimukasi//himukaɕi/

From Old Japanese. Found in the Man'yōshū dated 759 CE, but consistently spelled with the single kanji rather than in man'yōgana, thus leaving the reading unspecified.[1] Compound of (hi, sun) +‎ 向か (muka, facing, direction, the 未然形 (mizenkei, incomplete form) of verb 向く (muku, to face a direction)) +‎ (shi, wind, direction).[2][3]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana ひむかし, rōmaji himukashi)

  1. (obsolete) east

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
ひんがし
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

/pimukasi//pimuɡasi//fimuɡasi//finɡasi//hinɡaɕi/

Sound shift from earlier pimukasi.[2][3] Attested in The Tale of Genji, no later than 1021 CE.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana ひんがし, rōmaji hingashi)

  1. (obsolete) east
    • 10th century: Ise Monogatari (chapter 4, page 82)[4]
      むかし、東(ひんがし)の五条に大后の宮おはしましける、西の対に住む人有けり。

Etymology 4[edit]

Kanji in this term
ひがし
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

/finɡasi//hiɡaɕi/

Sound shift from earlier hingashi. Now the standard word for east.[2][3]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana ひがし, rōmaji higashi)

  1. east
Derived terms[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

(hiragana ひがし, rōmaji Higashi)

  1. A surname​.
  2. any of various places in Japan

Etymology 5[edit]

Kanji in this term
あずま
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

/aduma//ad͡zuma//azuma/

From Old Japanese.[2][3] Ultimate derivation unknown. A speculative origin might be a compound of (ama, sky, heavens) + (tsuma, edge, beginning), but the elision of the ma in ama does not follow normal patterns.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana あずま, rōmaji azuma, historical hiragana あづま)

  1. (archaic) east
  2. (archaic, by extension) eastern Japan
  3. Abbreviation of 東琴 (azumagoto): a six-stringed Japanese zither
  4. (archaic, possibly obsolete) the Edo area (specifically used in the Kansai region, especially around Kyōto and Ōsaka)

Proper noun[edit]

(hiragana あずま, rōmaji Azuma, historical hiragana あづま)

  1. A female given name
  2. A surname​.
  3. any of various places in Japan

(hiragana あづま, rōmaji Azuma)

  1. A female given name
  2. A surname​.

Etymology 6[edit]

Kanji in this term
とん
Grade: 2
Irregular

Borrowing from Chinese , borrowed specifically as mahjong terminology. Compare Wu (ton), Hakka (tûng), Min Nan (tong).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(katakana トン, rōmaji ton)

  1. (mahjong) east wind (tile)
  2. (mahjong) a (yaku, hand) of a triplet or quad of east wind tiles, see 役牌
Derived terms[edit]
See also[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

(hiragana とん, rōmaji Ton)

  1. A surname​.

Etymology 7[edit]

Other various nanori readings.

Proper noun[edit]

(hiragana あきら, rōmaji Akira)

  1. A surname​.
  2. A male given name

(hiragana あず, rōmaji Azu)

  1. A female given name
  2. A surname​.

(hiragana あずきよ, rōmaji Azukiyo)

  1. A female given name

(hiragana こちざき, rōmaji Kochizaki)

  1. A surname​.

(hiragana さき, rōmaji Saki)

  1. A female given name

(hiragana たかとう, rōmaji Takatō)

  1. A surname​.

(hiragana とうあ, rōmaji Tōa)

  1. A surname​.

(hiragana とうはま, rōmaji Tōhama)

  1. A surname​.

(hiragana のぼる, rōmaji Noboru)

  1. A male given name

(hiragana はじめ, rōmaji Hajime)

  1. A surname​.
  2. A male given name

(hiragana ひがしつる, rōmaji Higashitsuru)

  1. A surname​.

References[edit]

  1. ^ c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 1, poem 48), text here
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  4. ^ Horiuchi, Hideaki; Ken Akiyama (1997) Taketori Monogatari, Ise Monogatari, Tōkyō: Iwanami Shoten, ISBN 4-00-240017-4
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(dong)

  1. east; eastern

Compounds[edit]


Okinawan[edit]

Kanji[edit]

Readings[edit]

  • Native: く (ku), くち (kuchi), あがり (agari)
  • Nonnative: とー (tō), とぅ (tu)

Compounds[edit]

  • 東風 (くち, kuchi): east wind, easterly wind, eastern wind
  • 東風 (くちかじ, kuchikaji): east wind, easterly wind, eastern wind
  • 東京 (とーちょー, tōchō): Tokyo
  • 広東瓜 (くゎんとぅうい, kwantuui): watermelon

Etymology[edit]

From 上り (agari, ascent, rise) in reference to the direction where the sun rises, ascends.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana あがり, romaji agari)

  1. east

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(đông, đang)

  1. east; eastern

Yoron[edit]

Kanji[edit]

Readings[edit]

  • Native: あがり (agari)

Etymology[edit]

From 上り (agari, ascent, rise) in reference to the direction where the sun rises, ascends.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana あがり, romaji agari)

  1. east