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U+6A02, 樂
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6A02

[U+6A01]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6A03]
U+F914, 樂
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-F914

[U+F913]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+F915]
U+F95C, 樂
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-F95C

[U+F95B]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+F95D]
樂 U+F9BF, 樂
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-F9BF

[U+F9BE]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+F9C0]

Translingual[edit]

Traditional
Shinjitai
Simplified

Alternative forms[edit]

  • In mainland China (for its traditional form based on Xin Zixing 新字形), Japanese kanji, Korean hanja and Vietnamese Nôm, the bottom component is written , which is the historical form found in the Kangxi dictionary.
  • In Taiwan and Hong Kong (based on the Big5 encoding standard), the bottom component is written without a hook instead.
  • Three CJK compatibility ideographs exist at U+F914, U+F95C and U+F9BF. All three forms are the same as the form used in Korean hanja.

Han character[edit]

(radical 75, +11, 15 strokes, cangjie input 女戈木 (VID), four-corner 22904, composition ⿱⿲(GHJKV) or ⿱⿲幺⿻(T))

Derived characters[edit]

Related characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 548, character 20
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 15399
  • Dae Jaweon: page 936, character 6
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 1280, character 16
  • Unihan data for U+6A02

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.
alternative forms
Wikipedia has articles on:
  • (Written Standard Chinese?)
  • (Cantonese)

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
樂-oracle.svg 樂-bronze.svg 樂-seal.svg 樂-bigseal.svg

Ideogrammic compound (會意): (string) + (wood) – strings on a piece of wood, i.e. a wooden musical instrument.

The oracle bone form shows two strings connected to the wood. In the bronze inscriptions, a (OC *braːɡ) component was added in between the two strings, which may either represent the thumb (fiddling) or a phonetic part.

Etymology[edit]

“music; joyful”
The etymological relationship between “music” and “joy” has been discussed in Wulff (1935) and Unger (1983). Unger draws comparison with the following semantic parallelism in Tibetan: རོལ་མོ (rol mo, music) and རོལ (rol, to enjoy; to amuse oneself; to play).
Also comparable is Middle Khmer leṅa (to play) and bhleṅa ((playing) music), whence Thai เล่น (lên, to play) and เพลง (pleeng, music).

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Note:
  • 5hhiaq - “music”;
  • 5ngoq - only in the placename 樂清 in Zhejiang.
  • Xiang

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/3
    Initial () (31)
    Final () (10)
    Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () II
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ŋˠʌk̚/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ŋᵚɔk̚/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ŋɔk̚/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ŋaɨwk̚/
    Li
    Rong
    /ŋɔk̚/
    Wang
    Li
    /ŋɔk̚/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ŋɔk̚/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    yuè
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    ngok6
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 4/4
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    yuè
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ ngæwk ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[ŋ]ˁrawk/
    English music

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 3/3
    No. 7683
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ŋraːwɢ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. music; tune; melody; song
      /   ―  yīnyuè  ―  music
      /   ―  yuèduì  ―  band
      /   ―  zòuyuè  ―  to play music
    2. to play music; to sing
    3. musical instrument
    4. Short for 樂經乐经 (Yuèjīng, “Classic of Music”).
    5. A surname​.
    Usage notes[edit]

    The surname (yuè) is different from the surname ().

    Synonyms[edit]
    • (music):
    edit
    • 弦歌 (xiángē) (figurative)

    Compounds[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: (がく) (gaku)
    • Vietnamese: nhạc ()

    Pronunciation 2[edit]



    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 3/3
    Initial () (37)
    Final () (103)
    Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /lɑk̚/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /lɑk̚/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /lɑk̚/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /lak̚/
    Li
    Rong
    /lɑk̚/
    Wang
    Li
    /lɑk̚/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /lɑk̚/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    luò
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    lok6
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 2/4
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ lak ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[r]ˁawk/
    English joy; enjoy

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/3
    No. 7673
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*raːwɢ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. joyful; happy; glad
      Synonym: (kuài)
    2. enjoyable; fun
    3. happiness; joy; pleasure
      /   ―    ―  delight; pleasure
    4. lasciviousness; lechery; decadence
    5. to laugh; to smile
    6. to enjoy; to love
    7. 24th tetragram of the Taixuanjing; "joy" (𝌝)
    8. A surname​.
    Usage notes[edit]

    The surname () is different from the surname (yuè).

    Synonyms[edit]
    • (to laugh; to smile):

    Compounds[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    Sino-Xenic ():

    Pronunciation 3[edit]



    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/3
    Initial () (31)
    Final () (90)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () II
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ŋˠauH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ŋᵚauH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ŋauH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ŋaɨwH/
    Li
    Rong
    /ŋauH/
    Wang
    Li
    /ŋauH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ŋauH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    yào
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    ngaau6
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 3/4
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    yào
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ ngæwH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[ŋ]ˁrawk-s/
    English cause to rejoice

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/3
    No. 7670
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ŋraːwɢs/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. to be fond of; to enjoy; to appreciate

    Compounds[edit]

    Pronunciation 4[edit]


    Definitions[edit]

    1. Used in place names.
      /   ―  Làotíng  ―  Laoting (county of Hebei)
      /   ―  Làolíng  ―  Laoling (county-level city in Shandong)

    Pronunciation 5[edit]

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“to treat; to cure; to heal; therapy; treatment”).
    (This character, , is a variant form of .)

    Pronunciation 6[edit]


    Definitions[edit]

    1. Used in compounds.

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Shinjitai

    Kyūjitai

    Kanji[edit]

    (“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for nameskyūjitai kanji, shinjitai form )

    1. Kyūjitai form of

    Readings[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC ŋˠauH):

    From Middle Chinese (MC ŋˠʌk̚, “music, singing”):

    From Middle Chinese (MC lɑk̚, “comfort, ease”):


    Korean[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC ŋˠʌk̚).

    Historical Readings
    Dongguk Jeongun Reading
    Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 ᅌᅡᆨ〮 (Yale: ngák)
    Middle Korean
    Text Eumhun
    Gloss (hun) Reading
    Hunmong Jahoe, 1527[2] 음악〮 (Yale: ùm-ák) 악〮 (Yale: ák)
    Early Modern Korean
    Text Eumhun
    Gloss (hun) Reading
    Juhae Cheonjamun, 1804 풍류 (pungnyu) (ak)

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 노래 (norae ak))

    1. Hanja form? of (music; tune; melody; song).

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC lɑk̚).

    Historical Readings
    Dongguk Jeongun Reading
    Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 락〮 (Yale: lák)
    Middle Korean
    Text Eumhun
    Gloss (hun) Reading
    Gwangju Cheonjamun, 1575 ᄒᆞᆯ (Yale: nak-hol) (Yale: lak)
    Sinjeung Yuhap, 1576 즐길 (Yale: culkil) (Yale: lak)
    Early Modern Korean
    Text Eumhun
    Gloss (hun) Reading
    Juhae Cheonjamun, 1804 즐길 (jeulgil) (rak)

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun 즐길 (jeulgil rak), South Korea 즐길 (jeulgil nak))

    1. Hanja form? of / (to enjoy; happiness; pleasure).

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 3[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC ŋˠauH).

    Historical Readings
    Dongguk Jeongun Reading
    Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 ᅌᅭᇢ〮 (Yale: ngyów)
    Early Modern Korean
    Text Eumhun
    Gloss (hun) Reading
    Juhae Cheonjamun, 1804 됴히 너길 (dyohi neogil) (yo)

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun 좋아할 (joahal yo))

    1. (literary) Hanja form? of (to be fond of; to like).

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [3]

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Nôm readings: lạc, nhạc

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.