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U+6A02, 樂
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6A02

[U+6A01]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6A03]
U+F914, 樂
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-F914

[U+F913]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+F915]
U+F95C, 樂
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-F95C

[U+F95B]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+F95D]
樂 U+F9BF, 樂
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-F9BF

[U+F9BE]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+F9C0]

Translingual[edit]

Traditional
Shinjitai
Simplified

Han character[edit]

(radical 75 +11, 15 strokes, cangjie input 女戈木 (VID), four-corner 22904, composition ⿱⿲)

References[edit]


Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.
alt. forms

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Large seal script Small seal script
樂-oracle.svg 樂-bronze.svg 樂-bigseal.svg 樂-seal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*ŋraːwɢs, *raːwɢ, *ŋraːwɢ
*raːd, *raːwɢ, *reːwɢ
*pqʰlaːwɢ, *raːwɢ, *reːwɢ, *pqʰloːwɢ, *roːwɢ, *roːwɢ
*raːwɢ, *reːwɢ
*rawɢ, *reːwɢ
*qʰljawɢ
*qʰljawɢ
*lawɢ
*lawɢ, *reːwɢ
*lawɢ
*reːwɢ
*reːwɢ
*reːwɢ
*reːwɢ, *roːwɢ
*qʰloːwɢ, *qʰloːwɢ

Ideogrammic compound (會意):  (string) +  (wood) – strings on a piece of wood, i.e. a wooden musical instrument.

The oracle bone form shows two strings connected to the wood. In the bronze inscriptions, a (OC *braːɡ) component was added in between the two strings, which may either represent the thumb (fiddling) or a phonetic part.

Etymology 1[edit]

The etymological relationship between “music” and “joy” has been discussed in Wulff (1935) and Unger (1983). Unger draws comparison with the following semantic parallelism in Tibetan: རོལ་མོ (rol mo, music) and རོལ (rol, to enjoy; to amuse oneself; to play).

Also comparable is Middle Khmer leṅa (to play) and bhleṅa ((playing) music), whence Thai เล่น (lên, to play) and เพลง (pleeng, music).

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Note:
  • 5hhiaq - “music”;
  • 5ngoq - only in the placename 樂清 in Zhejiang.

Rime
Character
Reading # 2/3
Initial () (31)
Final () (10)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () II
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ŋˠʌk̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/ŋᵚɔk̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/ŋɔk̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ŋaɨwk̚/
Li
Rong
/ŋɔk̚/
Wang
Li
/ŋɔk̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ŋɔk̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
yuè
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 4/4
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
yuè
Middle
Chinese
‹ ngæwk ›
Old
Chinese
/*[ŋ]ˤrawk/
English music

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 3/3
No. 7683
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ŋraːwɢ/
Definitions[edit]

  1. music; tune; melody; song
    /   ―  yīnyuè  ―  music
  2. to play music; to sing
  3. musical instrument
  4. Short for 樂經乐经 (Yuèjīng, “Classic of Music”).
  5. A surname​.
Compounds[edit]

Pronunciation 2[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 3/3
Initial () (37)
Final () (103)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/lɑk̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/lɑk̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/lɑk̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/lak̚/
Li
Rong
/lɑk̚/
Wang
Li
/lɑk̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/lɑk̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
luò
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 2/4
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ lak ›
Old
Chinese
/*[r]ˤawk/
English joy; enjoy

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/3
No. 7673
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*raːwɢ/
Definitions[edit]

  1. joyful; happy; glad
  2. enjoyable; fun
  3. happiness; joy; pleasure
    /   ―    ―  delight; pleasure
  4. lasciviousness; lechery; decadence
  5. to laugh; to smile
  6. to enjoy; to love
  7. 24th tetragram of the Taixuanjing
  8. A surname​.
Compounds[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/3
Initial () (31)
Final () (90)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () II
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ŋˠauH/
Pan
Wuyun
/ŋᵚauH/
Shao
Rongfen
/ŋauH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ŋaɨwH/
Li
Rong
/ŋauH/
Wang
Li
/ŋauH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ŋauH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
yào
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 3/4
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
yào
Middle
Chinese
‹ ngæwH ›
Old
Chinese
/*[ŋ]ˤrawk-s/
English cause to rejoice

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/3
No. 7670
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ŋraːwɢs/
Definitions[edit]

  1. to be fond of; to enjoy; to appreciate
Compounds[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Definitions[edit]

  1. Used in placenames.
    /   ―  Làotíng  ―  Laoting County, Hebei Province
    /   ―  Làolíng  ―  Laoling, Shandong Province

Etymology 4[edit]

For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“to cure; to relieve”).
(This character, , is a variant form of .)

Etymology 5[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Definitions[edit]

  1. Used in certain words.

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Shinjitai

Kyūjitai

Kanji[edit]

(“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for nameskyūjitai kanji, shinjitai form )

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Readings[edit]


Korean[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(ak)

  1. music; tune; melody; song

Etymology 2[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(rak>nak)

  1. happiness; joy; pleasure

Etymology 3[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(yo)

  1. to be fond of; to enjoy; to appreciate

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(lạc, nhạc)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.