民主

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Chinese[edit]

the people; nationality; citizen
 
to own; to host; master; lord; primary
simp. and trad.
(民主)

Etymology[edit]

“democracy; democratic”
Purposed in the mid-1860s during the translation of the book Elements of International Law.

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
Initial () (4) (23)
Final () (43) (24)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open Closed
Division () III III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/miɪn/ /t͡ɕɨoX/
Pan
Wuyun
/min/ /t͡ɕioX/
Shao
Rongfen
/mjen/ /t͡ɕioX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/min/ /cuə̆X/
Li
Rong
/miĕn/ /t͡ɕioX/
Wang
Li
/mĭĕn/ /t͡ɕĭuX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/mi̯ĕn/ /t͡ɕi̯uX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
mín zhǔ
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
mín zhǔ
Middle
Chinese
‹ mjin › ‹ tsyuX ›
Old
Chinese
/*mi[ŋ]/ /*toʔ/
English people master; host

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
No. 9130 17618
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1 0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*min/ /*tjoʔ/

Noun[edit]

民主

  1. monarch
  2. functionary; official
  3. democracy
    君主民主 [MSC, trad.]
    君主民主 [MSC, simp.]
    From: 鄭觀應《盛世危言•議院》 (1893)
    Jūnzhǔ zhě, quán piān yú shàng; mínzhǔ zhě, quán piān yú xià. [Pinyin]
    (please add an English translation of this example)
    美國終於產生歷史黑人總統巴拉克·奧巴馬對於美國民主政治具有劃時代意義 [MSC, trad.]
    美国终于产生历史黑人总统巴拉克·奥巴马对于美国民主政治具有划时代意义 [MSC, simp.]
    From: 2008: 周琪 (Zhou Qi), 【美国大选观察】奥巴马为什么大胜? ([Observations on the American Elections] Why did Obama have a great victory?)
    Měiguó zhōngyú chǎnshēng le lìshǐ shàng dì yī wèi hēirén zǒngtǒng Bālākè Àobāmǎ, zhè duìyú měiguó de mínzhǔ zhèngzhì jùyǒu huàshídài de yìyì. [Pinyin]
    The historic election of the US’s first black president, Barack Obama, marked an epoch in the history of American democracy.

Synonyms[edit]

Adjective[edit]

民主

  1. democratic
    民主協商 / 民主协商  ―  mínzhǔ xiéshāng  ―  democratic consultation

Derived terms[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji in this term
みん
Grade: 4
しゅ
Grade: 3
on’yomi

Etymology[edit]

From Sinitic 民主. Purposed in China in the mid-1860s, giving the word a new meaning, during the translation of the book Elements of International Law into Chinese.[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

民主 (hiragana みんしゅ, rōmaji minshu)

  1. democracy

Synonyms[edit]

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Chen, Sheng Bao (1996-12-17), “中国語の中の日本語 (Chinese Borrowings from the Japanese Language), paper presented at the Japanese Language Research Forum held by the International Research Center for Japanese Studies”, in (Please provide the title of the work)[1] (in Japanese), International Research Center for Japanese Studies, retrieved 2012-06-15: “古代漢語のことばを利用して訳したものだが、本来の意味とは違うもの。...「民主」”

Korean[edit]

Hanja in this term

Noun[edit]

民主 (minju) (hangeul 민주)

  1. Hanja form? of 민주, “democracy”.