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See also:
U+6F38, 漸
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6F38

[U+6F37]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6F39]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 85 +11, 14 strokes, cangjie input 水十十中 (EJJL), four-corner 32121, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 647, character 14
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 18179
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1057, character 13
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 3, page 1717, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+6F38

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.

Glyph origin[edit]

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*zaːm
*zaːm
*zaːm, *zaːmʔ, *zaːms, *zeːm, *zamʔ
*zaːmʔ, *sʰam, *sʰams, *zamʔ
*zaːms
*zaːms
*ʔsreːmʔ
*zeːm, *zaːm
*zreːmʔ, *zaːm
*ʔsraːms
*sʰraːms
*ʔsam, *zamʔ
*sʰams
*sʰams
*sʰams
*zam, *zamʔ
*zamʔ

Etymology 1[edit]

Pronunciation 1[edit]



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /t͡ɕian⁵¹/
Harbin /t͡ɕian⁵³/
Tianjin /t͡ɕian⁵³/
Jinan /t͡ɕiã²¹/
Qingdao /t͡siã⁴²/
Zhengzhou /t͡sian³¹²/
Xi'an /t͡sã⁴⁴/
Xining /t͡sã²¹³/
Yinchuan /t͡ɕian¹³/
Lanzhou /t͡ɕiɛ̃n¹³/
Ürümqi /t͡ɕian²¹³/
Wuhan /t͡ɕiɛn³⁵/
Chengdu /t͡ɕian¹³/
Guiyang /t͡ɕian²¹³/
Kunming /t͡ɕiɛ̃²¹²/
Nanjing /t͡sien⁴⁴/
Hefei /t͡ɕiĩ⁵³/
Jin Taiyuan /t͡ɕie⁴⁵/
Pingyao /t͡ɕie̞³⁵/
Hohhot /t͡ɕie⁵⁵/
Wu Shanghai /ʑi²³/
Suzhou /ziɪ³¹/
Hangzhou /d͡ʑiẽ̞¹³/
Wenzhou /ji²²/
Hui Shexian /t͡sʰe²²/
Tunxi
Xiang Changsha /t͡siẽ⁵⁵/
Xiangtan /t͡siẽ⁵⁵/
Gan Nanchang /t͡ɕʰiɛn²¹/
Hakka Meixian /t͡sʰiam⁵³/
Taoyuan /t͡sʰiɑm¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /t͡sim²²/
Nanning /t͡sim²²/
Hong Kong /t͡sim²²/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /t͡siam²²/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /t͡sieŋ²⁴²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /t͡siŋ⁴⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /t͡siam³⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /t͡siam³³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (15)
Final () (153)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/d͡ziᴇmX/
Pan
Wuyun
/d͡ziɛmX/
Shao
Rongfen
/d͡zjæmX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/d͡ziamX/
Li
Rong
/d͡ziɛmX/
Wang
Li
/d͡zĭɛmX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/d͡zʱi̯ɛmX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
jiàn
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
jiàn
Middle
Chinese
‹ dzjemX ›
Old
Chinese
/*[dz]amʔ/
English gradually; advance

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 16811
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*zamʔ/
Definitions[edit]

  1. Qiantang River
  2. to advance gradually
  3. small degree
  4. to aggravate
  5. to dredge
  6. omen
  7. prerequisite
  8. step
  9. gradually
  10. just
  11. presently
  12. when
  13. 53rd hexagram of the I Ching
Compounds[edit]

Pronunciation 2[edit]



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /t͡ɕian⁵¹/
Harbin /t͡ɕian⁵³/
Tianjin /t͡ɕian⁵³/
Jinan /t͡ɕiã²¹/
Qingdao /t͡siã⁴²/
Zhengzhou /t͡sian³¹²/
Xi'an /t͡sã⁴⁴/
Xining /t͡sã²¹³/
Yinchuan /t͡ɕian¹³/
Lanzhou /t͡ɕiɛ̃n¹³/
Ürümqi /t͡ɕian²¹³/
Wuhan /t͡ɕiɛn³⁵/
Chengdu /t͡ɕian¹³/
Guiyang /t͡ɕian²¹³/
Kunming /t͡ɕiɛ̃²¹²/
Nanjing /t͡sien⁴⁴/
Hefei /t͡ɕiĩ⁵³/
Jin Taiyuan /t͡ɕie⁴⁵/
Pingyao /t͡ɕie̞³⁵/
Hohhot /t͡ɕie⁵⁵/
Wu Shanghai /ʑi²³/
Suzhou /ziɪ³¹/
Hangzhou /d͡ʑiẽ̞¹³/
Wenzhou /ji²²/
Hui Shexian /t͡sʰe²²/
Tunxi
Xiang Changsha /t͡siẽ⁵⁵/
Xiangtan /t͡siẽ⁵⁵/
Gan Nanchang /t͡ɕʰiɛn²¹/
Hakka Meixian /t͡sʰiam⁵³/
Taoyuan /t͡sʰiɑm¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /t͡sim²²/
Nanning /t͡sim²²/
Hong Kong /t͡sim²²/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /t͡siam²²/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /t͡sieŋ²⁴²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /t͡siŋ⁴⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /t͡siam³⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /t͡siam³³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (13)
Final () (153)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/t͡siᴇm/
Pan
Wuyun
/t͡siɛm/
Shao
Rongfen
/t͡sjæm/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/t͡siam/
Li
Rong
/t͡siɛm/
Wang
Li
/t͡sĭɛm/
Bernard
Karlgren
/t͡si̯ɛm/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
jiān
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
jiān
Middle
Chinese
‹ tsjem ›
Old
Chinese
/*[ts]am/
English moisten

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 16804
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ʔsam/
Definitions[edit]

  1. to flow into
  2. to bedew
  3. to soak
  4. to moisten
  5. to influence
  6. to cheat
Compounds[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

For pronunciation and definitions of – see .
(This character, , is a variant form of .)

Etymology 3[edit]

For pronunciation and definitions of – see .
(This character, , is a variant form of .)

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Readings[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(jeom, cham) (hangeul , , revised jeom, cham, McCune-Reischauer chŏm, ch'am, Yale cem, cham)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(tiệm, tràn, tiêm, tiềm)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.