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See also:
U+7121, 無
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-7121

[U+7120]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+7122]
Emoji u1f21a.svg
🈚 U+1F21A, 🈚
SQUARED CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-7121
🈙
[U+1F219]
Enclosed Ideographic Supplement 🈛
[U+1F21B]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
(cursive)
無-cursive-order.gif
The character 無 in semi-cursive script.

Han character[edit]

(radical 86, +8, 12 strokes, cangjie input 人廿火 (OTF), four-corner 80331, composition ⿱⿳𠂉)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 673, character 26
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 19113
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1081, character 24
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 3, page 2211, character 15
  • Unihan data for U+7121

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.
variant forms
Wikipedia has an article on:
Mu (negative) (English)

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
無-oracle.svg 無-bronze.svg 無-silk.svg 無-slip.svg 無-seal.svg 無-bigseal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*m̥ʰaː, *maː, *ma
*maː
*hmaː, *ma, *maʔ
*hmaː
*hmaʔ
*m̥ʰaʔ
*ma
*ma, *maʔ
*ma
*ma
*ma
*ma
*ma, *maʔ
*maʔ
*maʔ
*maʔ
*maʔ
*maʔ
*maʔ

Pictogram (象形). A man with something long held in both hands. Dancing.

This character is borrowed for “have no”, and the character is used for the original sense.

Etymology 1[edit]

Core Sino–Tibetan. From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *ma (no, not); cognate with Tibetan (ma, not) and Burmese (ma., not).

Cognate with:

  • (OC *mɯl, “not, no”)
  • (OC *ma, “do not”)
  • (OC *mɯd, “not, don't”)
  • (OC *mɯds, “not yet, haven't”)
  • (OC *mralʔ, “not, no”)
  • (OC *maŋ, “not have; to flee, to disappear, to die”)
  • (OC *mɯːd, “to end, to disappear, to drown”)
  • (OC *maːɡ, “none, nobody, nothing; do not; can not”)

Attested profusely in Classical Chinese, this word is the prototypical negation particle in the *m- series of Chinese negatives. In the oracle bone script, however, is not frequently used, and its homophone (or near-homophone) (OC *ma) is used instead.

See (OC *pɯ, *pɯʔ, *pɯ', “not”) for more on negative particles in Old Chinese.

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • mò - colloquial;
  • vù - literary.
  • Min Bei
  • Min Dong
  • Note:
    • mò̤ - colloquial;
    • ù - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • bô - colloquial;
    • bû - literary.
    Note:
    • bho5 - colloquial;
    • bhu5 - literary.
  • Wu
  • Note:
    • 3hhmm - colloquial;
    • 3vu - literary.

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (4)
    Final () (24)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Closed
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /mɨo/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /mio/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /mio/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /muə̆/
    Li
    Rong
    /mio/
    Wang
    Li
    /mĭu/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /mi̯u/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/3 2/3 3/3
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ mju › ‹ mju › ‹ mju ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ma/ /*ma/ /*mo/
    English not have volitional prefix don’t

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 13117
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ma/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. (literary, Hakka or Min) to not have something; there is not ...
      天空 / 天空  ―  Tiānkōng yún.  ―  There is no cloud in the sky.
      零星錢 / 零星钱 [Min Nan]  ―  Góa lân-san-chîⁿ. [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  I don't have any change.
    2. (literary, Min) Negation particle preceding verbs and adjectives. not
      /   ―    ―  can't
      /   ―  qiú yú nǐ.  ―  I want nothing from you.
    3. (literary, Min) have not
      / [Min Nan]  ―  Góa kā i kóng. [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  I didn't tell him.
    4. (literary, Hakka or Min) Interrogative particle.
    5. (Hakka, Min) if not; otherwise (placed at the start of a sentence)
    6. regardless of; no matter whether
    7. nothing; nil
      到有 / 到有  ―  cóng dào yǒu  ―  start from nothing, from scratch
    8. Alternative form of (, “do not”).
    9. without; -less; un-
      /   ―  qíng  ―  heartless
      /   ―    ―  unreasonable
      /   ―  biān  ―  unlimited
    Synonyms[edit]
    Dialectal synonyms of 沒有 (“to not have (+ noun)”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 沒有
    Mandarin Beijing 沒有
    Taiwan 沒有
    Jinan 沒有
    Xi'an 沒有
    Wuhan 冇得
    Chengdu 沒得
    Yangzhou 不得沒得
    Hefei
    Cantonese Guangzhou 冇有
    Hong Kong
    Taishan
    Gan Nanchang 冒有
    Hakka Meixian
    Miaoli (N. Sixian)
    Liudui (S. Sixian)
    Hsinchu (Hailu)
    Dongshi (Dabu)
    Zhuolan (Raoping)
    Yunlin (Zhao'an)
    Jin Taiyuan 沒啦
    Min Dong Fuzhou
    Min Nan Xiamen
    Quanzhou
    Zhangzhou
    Taipei
    Kaohsiung
    Tainan
    Taichung
    Hsinchu
    Lukang
    Sanxia
    Yilan
    Kinmen
    Magong
    Penang
    Singapore
    Philippines (Manila)
    Chaozhou
    Shantou
    Thailand (Bangkok)
    Wu Shanghai 嘸沒
    Suzhou 嘸不
    Wenzhou
    Xiang Changsha 冇得
    Shuangfeng 冇得

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    See 南無南无 (námó).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Definitions[edit]

    1. Only used in 南無南无 (námó).

    Compounds[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. nothing
    2. nothingness
    3. none
    4. nil
    5. not

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]


    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 4
    on’yomi

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana , rōmaji mu)

    1. nothing, nothingness
    2. (Buddhism): The null set: neither yes nor no (in response to a koan or other question that mistakenly assumes an affirmative or negative answer).

    Prefix[edit]

    (hiragana , rōmaji mu-)

    1. non-, un-

    (hiragana , rōmaji bu-)

    1. non-, un-

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    Yakja (略字, simplified cursive) form of 無.

    (mu) (hangeul , revised mu, McCune–Reischauer mu, Yale mu)

    1. (mu, “nothing”)
    2. (mu, “no”)
    3. (Buddhism) (mu, “neither yes nor no”) (in response to a koan or a question that mistakenly assumes an affirmative or negative answer)

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (, , thủy)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.