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U+72AF, 犯
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-72AF

[U+72AE]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+72B0]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 94, +2, 5 strokes, cangjie input 大竹尸山 (KHSU), four-corner 47212, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 706, character 2
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 20238
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1118, character 17
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 1331, character 8
  • Unihan data for U+72AF

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Small seal script
犯-seal.svg

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *bomʔ): semantic + phonetic 𢎘 ().

Etymology[edit]

"To pass over" > "to offend against, oppose". Compare .

This character originally had bilabial nasal (*-m) final in Old and Middle Chinese, but had undergone dissimilation (from bilabial plosive *b-) to become *-n in most dialects. However, there are still some dialects that retain this feature, such as Meixian and Teochew dialect. Similar dissimilation happened in .

Pronunciation[edit]


Note: faan6-2 - noun only.
Note:
  • huang6 - Shantou;
  • huam6 - Chaozhou.
  • Wu
  • Xiang
  • Note:
    • fan5 - vernacular;
    • fan4 - literary.

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (3)
    Final () (146)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Closed
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /bɨɐmX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /biɐmX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /biɐmX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /buamX/
    Li
    Rong
    /biɐmX/
    Wang
    Li
    /bĭwɐmX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /bʱi̯wɐmX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    fàn
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    faan6
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 2980
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    3
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*bomʔ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. to infringe on; to attack; to encroach
      [MSC, trad. and simp.]
      rén bù fàn wǒ, wǒ bù fàn rén [Pinyin]
      We will not attack if we are not attacked.
    2. to commit (crime), to violate
        ―  fànzuì  ―  to commit crime
    3. criminal
        ―  zuìfàn  ―  criminal
      走甩 [Cantonese, trad.]
      走甩 [Cantonese, simp.]
      bei2 go3 faan6-2 zau2 lat1 zo2 aa3! [Jyutping]
      The criminal ran loose!
    4. to happen; to break out (usually something wrong or bad)
      脾氣 / 脾气  ―  fànpíqì  ―  to get angry; to lose one's temper
    5. to brave; to face; to withstand

    Descendants[edit]

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: (はん) (han)
    • Korean: (, beom)
    • Vietnamese: phạm ()

    Compounds[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 5 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. crime, offense
    2. criminal, culprit, offender
    3. disciplined monk committing such offense

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    はん
    Grade: 5
    kan’on

    /pɨɐm//pamʉ//famʉ//haɴ/

    From Middle Chinese, (MC bɨɐmX).

    Suffix[edit]

    (はん) (-han

    1. perpetrators of a crime
    2. some types of crime

    Derived terms[edit]


    Korean[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC bɨɐmX).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [pʌ̹(ː)m]
    • Phonetic hangul: [(ː)]
      • Long vowel distinction only applies at the initial position. Most speakers no longer distinguish vowel length at any position.

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun 범할 (beomhal beom))

    1. Hanja form? of (to violate; to commit). [verbal root]
    2. Hanja form? of (criminal). [suffix]
    3. Hanja form? of (count of crime). [counter]

    Compounds[edit]


    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Nôm readings: phạm

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.