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U+767D, 白
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-767D

[U+767C]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+767E]
U+2F69, ⽩
KANGXI RADICAL WHITE

[U+2F68]
Kangxi Radicals
[U+2F6A]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
白-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 106, +0, 5 strokes, cangjie input 竹日 (HA), four-corner 26000, composition丿)

  1. Kangxi radical #106, .

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 785, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 22678
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1196, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 4, page 2642, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+767D

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
白-oracle.svg 白-bronze.svg 白-seal.svg 白-bigseal.svg

Unclear; probably a pictogram (象形).

Guo (1954) suggests that it represents a thumb and is original form of (OC *mɯʔ) or, more probably, (OC *preːɡ).

Alternatively, Unger (apud Schuessler, 2007) suggests that it represents an acorn, noting its use in (“oak”) (= ) and (“acorn”).

Etymology[edit]

STEDT derives it from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *bawk (white), whence also Proto-Bodo-Garo *bok (white), Limbu (phô, white); also compare Proto-Mon-Khmer *kɓɔɔk (white, grey).

However, Schuessler (2007) finds it difficult to reconcile these forms with Middle Chinese due to the lack of medial r. Instead, he proposes a derivation from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *bar (white) with -k extension, thus cognate with (OC *baːl, “white”) (Wang, 1982), Mizo vâr ((to be) white), Proto-Karen *ʔ(b)wa (white).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note: bó - extremely limited in usage, sometimes used in the name Li Bai (李白).
Note:
  • pah7 - vernacular;
  • pet6 - literary (e.g. 明白).
  • Hakka
  • Jin
  • Min Bei
  • Note:
    • bā, bà - vernacular;
    • bà̤ - literary.
  • Min Dong
  • Note:
    • băh - vernacular;
    • bĕk - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • pe̍h/pe̍eh - vernacular (standalone and in most compounds, surname);
    • pe̍k/pia̍k - literary (in a few compounds).
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /pai³⁵/
    Harbin /pai²⁴/
    Tianjin /pai⁴⁵/
    Jinan /pei²¹³/
    Qingdao /pe⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /pɛ⁴²/
    Xi'an /pei²⁴/
    Xining /pɨ²⁴/
    Yinchuan /pia¹³/
    /pɛ¹³/
    Lanzhou /pə⁵³/
    Ürümqi /pai⁵¹/
    /pei⁵¹/
    Wuhan /pɤ²¹³/
    Chengdu /pe³¹/
    Guiyang /pɛ²¹/
    Kunming /pə³¹/
    Nanjing /pəʔ⁵/
    Hefei /pɐʔ⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /pai¹¹/
    /piəʔ⁵⁴/
    Pingyao /piʌʔ⁵³/ ~的
    /pæ¹³/ ~菜
    Hohhot /pɛ³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /baʔ¹/
    Suzhou /bɑʔ³/
    Hangzhou /bɑʔ²/
    Wenzhou /ba²¹³/
    Hui Shexian /pʰɛ²²/
    Tunxi /pʰa¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /pə²⁴/
    Xiangtan /pæ²⁴/
    Gan Nanchang /pʰɑʔ²/
    Hakka Meixian /pʰak̚⁵/
    Taoyuan /pʰɑk̚⁵⁵/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /pak̚²/
    Nanning /pak̚²²/
    Hong Kong /pak̚²/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /pik̚⁵/
    /peʔ⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /paʔ⁵/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /pa⁴⁴/
    /pɛ⁴²/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /peʔ⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /ʔbɔk̚⁵/
    /ʔbɛ³⁵/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (3)
    Final () (113)
    Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () II
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /bˠæk̚/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /bᵚak̚/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /bak̚/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /baɨjk̚/
    Li
    Rong
    /bɐk̚/
    Wang
    Li
    /bɐk̚/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /bʱɐk̚/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    bak6
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    bái
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ bæk ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*bˁrak/
    English white

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 207
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*braːɡ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. white
        ―  bái  ―  white color
        ―  báichá  ―  white tea
    2. clear; easy to understand
        ―  míngbai  ―  clear, obvious
      /   ―  qiǎnbái  ―  simple
    3. clear; pure; plain; blank
      /   ―  báizhǐ  ―  a blank sheet of paper
        ―  báijuǎn  ―  blank exam paper
        ―  báishuǐ  ―  plain water
        ―  báizhōu  ―  plain congee
    4. bright; well-lit
    5. eminent; prominent
    6. vernacular
      /   ―  báihuà  ―  spoken language
    7. dialect
      /   ―  bái  ―  Suzhou dialect
        ―  jīngbái  ―  Beijing dialect
    8. Short for 白讀白读 (báidú, “colloquial reading”).
    9. reactionary; anticommunist
      /   ―  báijūn  ―  The White army
      /   ―  bái  ―  The White area
      色恐怖  ―  báisèkǒngbù  ―  the White terror
    10. in vain; for nothing
      我們沒有 / 我们没有  ―  Wǒmen méiyǒu bái máng.  ―  Our efforts were not in vain.
        ―  bái děng le.  ―  She waited in vain.
      他們沒有 [MSC, trad.]
      他们没有 [MSC, simp.]
      Tāmen de xuè méiyǒu bái liú. [Pinyin]
      Their blood was not shed in vain.
      所有工作 [MSC, trad. and simp.]
      Suǒyǒu de gōngzuò dōu bái zuò le. [Pinyin]
      All the work has been done for nothing.
      一趟 / 一趟  ―  bái lái yītàng  ―  to come in vain; to come for nothing
      東西 / 东西  ―  báigěi de dōngxi  ―  something given for nothing
    11. free of charge; gratuitous; gratis
      可以拿走蘋果 [MSC, trad.]
      可以拿走苹果 [MSC, simp.]
      Nǐ kěyǐ bái názǒu zhè xiē píngguǒ. [Pinyin]
      You can have these apples for free.
    12. to stare coldly; to stare at someone with the white of the eyes
      生氣一眼 [MSC, trad.]
      生气一眼 [MSC, simp.]
      Tā shēngqì de bái le tā yīyǎn. [Pinyin]
      She gave him an angry stare.
    13. to explain; to present; to state
        ―  bái  ―  explain oneself, confess
      開場 / 开场  ―  kāichǎngbái  ―  preamble
        ―  biǎobái  ―  to explain oneself
      /   ―  biànbái  ―  to explain, to defend oneself
    14. to mispronounce or wrongly write a character
      老是讀破句 [MSC, trad.]
      老是读破句 [MSC, simp.]
      Wǒ lǎoshì xiě bái zì dúpòjù. [Pinyin]
      I always mispronounce words and break my sentences up in the wrong places.
      /   ―  Wǒ bǎ zhè zì niàn bái le.  ―  I've mispronounced the character.
    15. spoken lines
        ―  niànbái  ―  spoken parts of a Chinese opera
        ―  dàobái  ―  spoken parts of a Chinese opera
      /   ―  bái  ―  monologue
      /   ―  duìbái  ―  dialogue
    16. funeral
      喜事 / 喜事  ―  hóngbáixǐshì  ―  weddings and funerals
    17. A surname. Bai
        ―  Bái Chóngxǐ  ―  Bai Chongxi
    18. (~族) Bai, an ethnic group living primarily in Yunnan, China

    Synonyms[edit]

    • (in vain): (Min Nan)

    Descendants[edit]

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: (はく) (haku)
    • Korean: (, baek)
    • Vietnamese: bạch ()

    Compounds[edit]

    See also[edit]

    References[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    しろ
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    ⟨siro1 → */sirʷo//ɕiro/

    From Old Japanese.

    The standalone apophonic form of shira below.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (しろ) (shiro

    1. the color white
    2. (by extension) innocence
    3. (go) a white go stone
    4. something unwritten
    5. (colloquial) the white team in a 紅白 (kōhaku) group
    6. (colloquial) an unlicensed prostitute
    7. (colloquial) Short for (shirogane): silver
    8. (colloquial) Synonym of (shio): salt
    9. (colloquial) Short for 白書院 (shiroshoin): a specific kind of drawing room or study, using unpainted cedar wood with straight grain
    10. a type of もつ焼き (motsuyaki) made from pig intestines
    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    しら
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    ⟨sira⟩/ɕira/

    From Old Japanese.

    The combining apophonic form of shiro above, mostly used in compounds.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Prefix[edit]

    (しら) (shira-

    1. Combining form of しろ (shiro) above:
      1. white
      2. undyed, unpainted, unseasoned, etc.
      3. pure
      4. innocent
      5. normal, unspecial
    Derived terms[edit]

    Adjectival noun[edit]

    (しら) (shira-na (adnominal (しら) (shira na), adverbial (しら) (shira ni))

    1. unapplied, undecorated; also the object that is unapplied or undecorated
    2. honest, serious; also the person who is honest or serious
    3. normal, unspecial; also the person who is normal or unspecial in position, occupation, or condition
    Inflection[edit]
    Idioms[edit]

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    はく
    Grade: 1
    kan’on

    From Middle Chinese (MC bˠæk̚).

    The 漢音 (kan'on, literally Han sound) reading, so likely a later borrowing from Middle Chinese.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (はく) (haku

    1. the color white
    2. Short for 白人 (hakujin): an amateur
    3. a performer's lines
      Synonym: 台詞 (serifu)
    4. (mahjong) a white dragon tile
      Synonym: 白板 (paipan)
      Hypernym: 三元牌 (sangenpai)
    5. (mahjong) a (yaku, winning hand) with a triplet or quad of white dragon tiles, worth 1 (han, double)
      Hypernym: 役牌 (yakuhai, yaku-pai)
    Coordinate terms[edit]

    Affix[edit]

    (はく) (haku

    1. white
    2. colorless, dirtless, markless
    3. bright and clear
    4. humbly say
    5. sake cup
    6. Short for 白居易 (Haku Kyoi): Bai Juyi
    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 4[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    びゃく
    Grade: 1
    goon

    From Middle Chinese (MC bˠæk̚).

    The 呉音 (goon, literally Wu sound) reading, so likely the original borrowing from Middle Chinese.

    Affix[edit]

    (びゃく) (byaku

    1. white
    Derived terms[edit]

    See also[edit]

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. 2.0 2.1 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    (This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun (huin baek))

    1. white

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun 아뢸 (aroel baek))

    1. to tell, to inform

    See also[edit]


    Okinawan[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    Cognate with Japanese (shiro, white).

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana しるー, rōmaji shirū)

    1. white (color)
      くれー、 (しるー)やいびーん。
      Kurē, shirū yaibīn.
      This is white.

    References[edit]

    • Okinawan-English Wordbook (Mitsugu Sakihara)

    Old Korean[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    The first attested meaning is "to report to a superior", from which the generally honorific meaning developed, presumably via an intermediary circumlocutional construction which is not attested. The orthography is logogramic; see the Chinese entry's definitions, specifically “to explain; to present; to state”.

    Verb[edit]

    (*SOLPO-)

    1. to inform a superior; to report
    2. an auxiliary verb or suffix honoring the direct or indirect object of the main verb [from c. 865.]
    3. an auxiliary verb or suffix honoring the subject of the main verb
      • c. 1250, Interpretive gugyeol glosses to the Humane King Sutra:
        良中說法
        IP-akuy SYANG-i SYEL.PEP-ho-so(l)p-wo-l to-y
        In [honorable your] constant preaching of the Dharma from the mouth
        (N.B. Gugyeol glyphs are given in non-abbreviated forms.)
      Synonym: (*-si)

    Descendants[edit]

    • Middle Korean: ᄉᆞᆲ다 (solpta, to report to a superior)
      • Korean: 사뢰다 (saroeda, to report to a superior)
    • Middle Korean: ᅀᆞᇦ (-zoW, verbal honorific suffix for the direct or indirect object)

    References[edit]

    • 황선엽 (Hwang Seon-yeop), 이전경 (Yi Jeon-gyeong), 하귀녀 (Ha Gwi-nyeo), 이용 (Yi Yong), 박진호 (Park Jin-ho), 김성주 (Kim Seong-ju), 장경준 (Jang Gyeong-jun), 서민욱 (Seo Min-uk), 이지영 (Yi Ji-yeong), 서형국 (Seo Hyeong-guk). (2009) 석독구결사전/釋讀口訣辭典 [Dictionary of interpretive gugyeol], Bakmunsa, →ISBN, pages 168—169
    • 남풍현 (Nam Pung-hyeon) (2011) , “古代韓國語의 謙讓法 助動詞 '白/ᄉᆞᆲ'과 '內/아'의 發達 [The development of the Old Korean humble auxiliary verbs '白 SOLP-' and '內 *A-']”, in Gugyeol Yeon'gu, volume 26, pages 131–166

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Hán tự[edit]

    : Hán Việt readings: bạch ((bạc)(mạch)(thiết))[1][2][3]
    : Nôm readings: bạch[1][2][3], bạc[1][3], trắng[1]

    1. (only in compounds) Hán tự form of bạch (white).
    2. Nôm form of bạc (silver).

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]


    Zhuang[edit]

    Verb[edit]

    1. Sawndip form of baeg (to be tired; to gasp)