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U+767D, 白
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-767D

[U+767C]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+767E]
U+2F69, ⽩
KANGXI RADICAL WHITE

[U+2F68]
Kangxi Radicals
[U+2F6A]

Translingual

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Stroke order

Han character

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(Kangxi radical 106, +0, 5 strokes, cangjie input 竹日 (HA), four-corner 26000, composition 丿)

  1. Kangxi radical #106, .

Derived characters

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References

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  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 785, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 22678
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1196, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 4, page 2642, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+767D

Chinese

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simp. and trad.
Wikipedia has articles on:

Glyph origin

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Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts

Unclear; probably a pictogram (象形) .

Guo (1954) suggests that it represents a thumb and is original form of (*mɯʔ) or, more probably, (*preːɡ).

Alternatively, Unger (apud Schuessler, 2007) suggests that it represents an acorn, noting its use in (oak) (= ) and (zào, acorn). In this interpretation, the meaning of “white” is derived from the color of an acorn's inside.

Etymology

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STEDT derives it from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *bawk (white), whence also Proto-Bodo-Garo *bok (white), Limbu (phô, white); also compare Proto-Mon-Khmer *kɓɔɔk (white, grey).

However, Schuessler (2007) finds it difficult to reconcile these forms with Middle Chinese due to the lack of medial r. Instead, he proposes a derivation from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *bar (white) with -k extension, thus cognate with (OC *baːl, “white”) (Wang, 1982), Mizo vâr ((to be) white), Proto-Karen *ʔ(b)wa (white).

Pronunciation

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Note: bó - extremely limited in usage, sometimes used in the name Li Bai (李白).
Note:
  • pah7 - vernacular;
  • pet6 - literary (e.g. 明白).
Note:
  • bā, bà - vernacular;
  • bà̤ - literary.
Note:
  • băh - vernacular;
  • bĕk - literary.
Note:
  • pe̍h/pe̍eh - vernacular (“white; easy to understand; in vain; spoken lines; funeral; bland and tasteless; cooked with just water; greasy; jargon; surname”, used in most compounds);
  • pe̍k/pia̍k - literary (used in a few compounds).

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /pai³⁵/
Harbin /pai²⁴/
Tianjin /pai⁴⁵/
Jinan /pei²¹³/
Qingdao /pe⁴²/
Zhengzhou /pɛ⁴²/
Xi'an /pei²⁴/
Xining /pɨ²⁴/
Yinchuan /pia¹³/
/pɛ¹³/
Lanzhou /pə⁵³/
Ürümqi /pai⁵¹/
/pei⁵¹/
Wuhan /pɤ²¹³/
Chengdu /pe³¹/
Guiyang /pɛ²¹/
Kunming /pə³¹/
Nanjing /pəʔ⁵/
Hefei /pɐʔ⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /pai¹¹/
/piəʔ⁵⁴/
Pingyao /piʌʔ⁵³/ ~的
/pæ¹³/ ~菜
Hohhot /pɛ³¹/
Wu Shanghai /baʔ¹/
Suzhou /bɑʔ³/
Hangzhou /bɑʔ²/
Wenzhou /ba²¹³/
Hui Shexian /pʰɛ²²/
Tunxi /pʰa¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /pə²⁴/
Xiangtan /pæ²⁴/
Gan Nanchang /pʰɑʔ²/
Hakka Meixian /pʰak̚⁵/
Taoyuan /pʰɑk̚⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /pak̚²/
Nanning /pak̚²²/
Hong Kong /pak̚²/
Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /pik̚⁵/
/peʔ⁵/
Fuzhou (Eastern Min) /paʔ⁵/
Jian'ou (Northern Min) /pa⁴⁴/
/pɛ⁴²/
Shantou (Teochew) /peʔ⁵/
Haikou (Hainanese) /ʔbɔk̚⁵/
/ʔbɛ³⁵/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (3)
Final () (113)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () II
Fanqie
Baxter baek
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/bˠæk̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/bᵚak̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/bak̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/baɨjk̚/
Li
Rong
/bɐk̚/
Wang
Li
/bɐk̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/bʱɐk̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
bak6
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
bái
Middle
Chinese
‹ bæk ›
Old
Chinese
/*bˁrak/
English white

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 207
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*braːɡ/

Definitions

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  1. white
      ―  bái  ―  white color
      ―  báichá  ―  white tea
  2. clear; easy to understand
      ―  míngbai'  ―  clear, obvious
      ―  qiǎnbái  ―  simple
  3. clear; pure; plain; blank
      ―  báizhǐ  ―  a blank sheet of paper
      ―  báijuǎn  ―  blank exam paper
      ―  báishuǐ  ―  plain water
      ―  báizhōu  ―  plain congee
  4. bright; well-lit
  5. eminent; prominent
  6. vernacular
      ―  báihuà  ―  spoken language
  7. dialect
      ―  bái  ―  Suzhou dialect
      ―  jīngbái  ―  Beijing dialect
  8. Short for 白讀白读 (báidú, “colloquial reading”).
  9. reactionary; anticommunist
      ―  báijūn  ―  The White army
      ―  bái  ―  The White area
    色恐怖  ―  báisèkǒngbù  ―  the White terror
  10. in vain; for nothing
    我們沒有我们没有  ―  Wǒmen méiyǒu bái máng.  ―  Our efforts were not in vain.
      ―  bái děng le.  ―  She waited in vain.
    他們沒有 [MSC, trad.]
    他们没有 [MSC, simp.]
    Tāmen de xuè méiyǒu bái liú. [Pinyin]
    Their blood was not shed in vain.
    所有工作 [MSC, trad. and simp.]
    Suǒyǒu de gōngzuò dōu bái zuò le. [Pinyin]
    All the work has been done for nothing.
    一趟一趟  ―  bái lái yītàng  ―  to come in vain; to come for nothing
    東西东西  ―  báigěi de dōngxi  ―  something given for nothing
  11. free of charge; gratuitous; gratis
    可以拿走蘋果 [MSC, trad.]
    可以拿走苹果 [MSC, simp.]
    Nǐ kěyǐ bái názǒu zhè xiē píngguǒ. [Pinyin]
    You can have these apples for free.
  12. to stare coldly; to stare at someone with the white of the eyes
    生氣一眼 [MSC, trad.]
    生气一眼 [MSC, simp.]
    Tā shēngqì de bái le tā yīyǎn. [Pinyin]
    She gave him an angry stare.
  13. to explain; to present; to state
      ―  bái  ―  explain oneself, confess
    開場开场  ―  kāichǎngbái  ―  preamble
      ―  biǎobái  ―  to explain oneself
      ―  biànbái  ―  to explain, to defend oneself
  14. to mispronounce or wrongly write a character
    老是讀破句 [MSC, trad.]
    老是读破句 [MSC, simp.]
    Wǒ lǎoshì xiě bái zì dúpòjù. [Pinyin]
    I always mispronounce words and break my sentences up in the wrong places.
    [MSC, trad.]
    [MSC, simp.]
    Wǒ bǎ zhè zì niàn bái le. [Pinyin]
    I've mispronounced the character.
  15. spoken lines
      ―  niànbái  ―  spoken parts of a Chinese opera
      ―  dàobái  ―  spoken parts of a Chinese opera
      ―  bái  ―  monologue
      ―  duìbái  ―  dialogue
  16. funeral
    喜事喜事  ―  hóngbáixǐshì  ―  weddings and funerals
    [Hokkien]  ―  pe̍h-thiap [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  obituary
  17. (Hokkien) bland and tasteless
    𬲕 [Hokkien]  ―  pe̍h-chiáⁿ [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  bland and flavorless
  18. (Hokkien) cooked with just water without adding any seasoning
    [Hokkien]  ―  pe̍h-sa̍h [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  to cook with boiling water
  19. (Hokkien) greasy; with a lot of fat or oil
    [Hokkien]  ―  pe̍h-bah [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  fatty meat
  20. (Hokkien) jargon; cant
    販仔贩仔 [Hokkien]  ―  hoàn-á-pe̍h [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  merchant jargon
  21. (Mainland China Hokkien) frank speech
    [Hokkien]  ―  poa̍h-pe̍h [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  to publicly disclose and get all the words and things clear in person
  22. a surname, commonly romanized as Bai
      ―  Bái Chóngxǐ  ―  Bai Chongxi
  23. (~族) Bai, an ethnic group living primarily in Yunnan, China

Synonyms

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  • (in vain): (Min Nan)

Descendants

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Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese: (はく) (haku)
  • Korean: 백(白) (baek)
  • Jeju: (bek)
  • Vietnamese: bạch ()

Others:

Compounds

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See also

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Colors in Chinese · 顏色颜色 (layout · text)
     白色      灰色      黑色
             紅色红色, 赤色; 緋紅色绯红色, 豔紅色艳红色, 大紅大红              橙色; 棕色, 褐色              黃色黄色; 奶油色
             青檸色青柠色              綠色绿色             
             青色; 深青色              湛藍色湛蓝色, 蔚藍色蔚蓝色, 天藍色天蓝色              藍色蓝色
             紫羅蘭色紫罗兰色; 靛色              洋紅色洋红色; 紫色              粉紅色粉红色

References

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Japanese

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Kanji

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(First grade kyōiku kanji)

Readings

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Compounds

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Etymology 1

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Kanji in this term
しろ
Grade: 1
kun'yomi

⟨siro1 → */sirʷo//ɕiro/

From Old Japanese, from Proto-Japonic *siro.

The standalone apophonic form of shira below.

Pronunciation

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Noun

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(しろ) (shiro

  1. the color white
    Coordinate term: (kuro, black)
  2. (by extension) innocence
    Coordinate term: (kuro, guilt)
  3. (go) a white go stone
  4. something unwritten
  5. (colloquial) the white team in a 紅白 (kōhaku) group
  6. (colloquial) an unlicensed prostitute
  7. (colloquial) Short for (shirogane): silver
  8. (colloquial) Synonym of (shio): salt
  9. (colloquial) Short for 白書院 (shiroshoin): a specific kind of drawing room or study, using unpainted cedar wood with straight grain
  10. a type of もつ焼き (motsuyaki) made from pig intestines
  11. in the game of 人狼 (Jinrō, Werewolf; Mafia), one who is on the villagers' side
    Antonym: (kuro)
    確定白(かくていしろ)確白(かくしろ)
    kakutei-shiro kakushiro
    one who is certainly on the villagers' side
Derived terms
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Etymology 2

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Kanji in this term
しら
Grade: 1
kun'yomi

⟨sira⟩/ɕira/

From Old Japanese.

The combining apophonic form of shiro above, mostly used in compounds.

Pronunciation

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Prefix

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(しら) (shira-

  1. Combining form of しろ (shiro) above:
    1. white
    2. undyed, unpainted, unseasoned, etc.
    3. pure
    4. innocent
    5. normal, unspecial
Derived terms
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Adjective

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(しら) (shira-na (adnominal (しら) (shira na), adverbial (しら) (shira ni))

  1. unapplied, undecorated; also the object that is unapplied or undecorated
  2. honest, serious; also the person who is honest or serious
  3. normal, unspecial; also the person who is normal or unspecial in position, occupation, or condition
Inflection
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Idioms
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Etymology 3

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Kanji in this term
はく
Grade: 1
kan'on

From Middle Chinese (MC baek).

Pronunciation

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Noun

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(はく) or (ハク) (haku

  1. the color white
  2. Short for 白人 (hakujin): an amateur
  3. a performer's lines
    Synonym: 台詞 (serifu)
  4. (mahjong) a white dragon tile
    Synonym: 白板 (paipan)
    Hypernym: 三元牌 (sangenpai)
  5. (mahjong) a (yaku, winning hand) with a triplet or quad of white dragon tiles, worth 1 (han, double)
    Hypernym: 役牌 (yakuhai, yaku-pai)
Coordinate terms
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Affix

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(はく) (haku

  1. white
  2. colorless, dirtless, markless
  3. bright and clear
  4. humbly say
  5. sake cup
  6. Short for 白居易 (Haku Kyoi): Bai Juyi
Derived terms
[edit]

Etymology 4

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Kanji in this term
びゃく
Grade: 1
goon

From Middle Chinese (MC baek).

Affix

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(びゃく) (byaku

  1. white
Derived terms
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See also

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Colors in Japanese · (いろ) (iro) (layout · text)
     (しろ) (shiro)      (はい)(いろ) (haiiro),
(ねずみ)(いろ) (nezumiiro) (dated)
     (くろ) (kuro)
             (あか) (aka); (しん)() (shinku),
クリムゾン (kurimuzon),
(べに)(いろ) (beniiro),
(くれない)(いろ) (kurenaiiro),
(あかね)(いろ) (akaneiro)
             オレンジ (orenji),
(だいだい)(いろ) (daidaiiro); (ちゃ)(いろ) (chairo),
(かっ)(しょく) (kasshoku)
             ()(いろ) (kiiro); クリーム(いろ) (kurīmuiro)
             ()(みどり) (kimidori)              (みどり) (midori),
(あお) (ao) (dated)
             若緑(わかみどり) (wakamidori)
             シアン (shian); (かも)羽色(はねいろ) (kamo no hane iro)              (みず)(いろ) (mizuiro)              (あお) (ao)
             (すみれ)(いろ) (sumireiro); (あい)(いろ) (aiiro),
インジゴ (injigo)
             マゼンタ (mazenta),
赤紫(あかむらさき) (akamurasaki); (むらさき) (murasaki)
             ピンク (pinku),
(もも)(いろ) (momoiro)

References

[edit]
  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  2. 2.0 2.1 NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute, editor (1998), NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 [NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary] (in Japanese), Tokyo: NHK Publishing, Inc., →ISBN

Korean

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Etymology

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From Middle Chinese (MC baek).

Hanja

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(eumhun (huin baek))

  1. Hanja form? of (white).

(eumhun 아뢸 (aroel baek))

  1. Hanja form? of (tell, inform).

See also

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Okinawan

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Etymology

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Cognate with Japanese (shiro, white).

Noun

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(しるー) (shirū

  1. white (color)
    くれー、(しるー)やいびーん。
    Kurē, shirū yaibīn.
    This is white.

References

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  • Okinawan-English Wordbook (Mitsugu Sakihara)

Old Korean

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Etymology

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The first attested meaning is "to report to a superior", from which the generally honorific meaning developed, presumably via an intermediary circumlocutional construction which is not attested. The orthography is logogramic; see the Chinese entry's definitions, specifically “to explain; to present; to state”.

Verb

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(*SOLPO-)

  1. to inform a superior; to report
  2. an auxiliary verb or suffix honoring the direct or indirect object of the main verb [from c. 865.]
  3. an auxiliary verb or suffix honoring the subject of the main verb
    Synonym: (*-si)
    • c. 1250, Interpretive gugyeol glosses to the Humane King Sutra:
      良中說法
      IP-akuy SYANG-i SYEL.PEP-ho-so(l)p-wo-l to-y
      In [honorable your] constant preaching of the Dharma from the mouth
      (N.B. Gugyeol glyphs are given in non-abbreviated forms.)

Descendants

[edit]
  • Middle Korean: ᄉᆞᆲ다 (solpta, to report to a superior)
    • Early Modern Korean: ᄉᆞᆯ오다 (solwota, to report to a superior)
      • Korean: 사뢰다 (saroeda, to report to a superior)
    • Jeju: ᄉᆞᆯ루다 (sawlluda, to tell, speak to a superior)
  • Middle Korean: ᅀᆞᇦ (-zoW-, verbal honorific suffix for the direct or indirect object) (see there for further descendants)

References

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  • 황선엽 (Hwang Seon-yeop), 이전경 (Yi Jeon-gyeong), 하귀녀 (Ha Gwi-nyeo), 이용 (Yi Yong), 박진호 (Park Jin-ho), 김성주 (Kim Seong-ju), 장경준 (Jang Gyeong-jun), 서민욱 (Seo Min-uk), 이지영 (Yi Ji-yeong), 서형국 (Seo Hyeong-guk). (2009) 석독구결사전/釋讀口訣辭典 [Dictionary of interpretive gugyeol], Bakmunsa, →ISBN, pages 168—169
  • 남풍현 (Nam Pung-hyeon) (2011) “古代韓國語의 謙讓法 助動詞 '白/ᄉᆞᆲ'과 '內/아'의 發達 [The development of the Old Korean humble auxiliary verbs '白 SOLP-' and '內 *A-']”, in Gugyeol Yeon'gu, volume 26, pages 131–166

Vietnamese

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Han character

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: Hán Việt readings: bạch ((bạc)(mạch)(thiết))[1][2][3]
: Nôm readings: bạch[1][2][3], bạc[1][3], trắng[1]

  1. (only in compounds) chữ Hán form of bạch (white).
  2. Nôm form of bạc (silver).

Compounds

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References

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Zhuang

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Verb

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  1. Sawndip form of baeg (to be tired; to gasp)