Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to navigation Jump to search
U+7687, 皇
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-7687

[U+7686]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+7688]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
9 strokes
Stroke order (Japan)
9 strokes

Han character[edit]

(radical 106, +4, 9 strokes, cangjie input 竹日一土 (HAMG), four-corner 26104, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 786, character 14
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 22701
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1201, character 14
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 4, page 2645, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+7687

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms

Glyph origin[edit]

Pictogram (象形) ― a lit oil lamp. The derivative (OC *ɡʷaːŋ) refers to the original word.

Later developed into a phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ɡʷaːŋ): semantic  (flame) + phonetic  (OC *ɢʷaŋ, *ɢʷaŋs).

Etymology[edit]

Boodberg (1980) proposes a connection with (OC *ɢʷaŋ) "king" (see there for more information).

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (33)
Final () (102)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɦwɑŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɦʷɑŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɣuɑŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɦwaŋ/
Li
Rong
/ɣuɑŋ/
Wang
Li
/ɣuɑŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ɣwɑŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
huáng
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
huáng huáng
Middle
Chinese
‹ hwang › ‹ hwang ›
Old
Chinese
/*[ɢ]ʷˁaŋ/ /*[ɢ]ʷˁaŋ/
English yellow and white spotted sovereign

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 12696
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɡʷaːŋ/
Notes

Definitions[edit]

  1. magnificent
  2. emperor; sovereign; ruler; superior
  3. royal; imperial; august
  4. A surname​.

Compounds[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese: (おう) (ō); (こう) ()
  • Korean: (, hwang)
  • Vietnamese: hoàng ()

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 6 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
こう
Grade: 6
kan’on

/kʷau//kʷɔː//kɔː//koː/

From Middle Chinese (MC ɦwɑŋ).

The 漢音 (kan'on, literally Han sound) pronunciation, so likely a later borrowing from Middle Chinese.

Pronunciation[edit]

Affix[edit]

(こう) ( (historical kana くわう)

  1. Creator
  2. monarch, ruler, sovereign
  3. emperor, mikado, tenno
  4. Japan, Japanese
Derived terms[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

(こう) ( (historical kana くわう)

  1. a unisex given name

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
おう
Grade: 6
goon

/wau//wɔː//ɔː//oː/

From Middle Chinese (MC ɦwɑŋ).

The 呉音 (goon, literally Wu sound) pronunciation, so likely the initial borrowing.

Pronunciation[edit]

Affix[edit]

(おう) (ō (historical kana わう)

  1. emperor, mikado, tenno
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
すべ
Grade: 6
kun’yomi

/sume//sube/

From Old Japanese, as a shift from older sume.[1]

Previously thought to be derived as the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, stem or continuative form) of Old Japanese verb 統ぶ (subu), modern 統べる (suberu, to control, to govern, to rule). However, later research into ancient phonetic spellings clarified that the be portion of the verb was realized as ⟨be2. During the Old Japanese stage, ⟨be2 could only have derived phonetically from ⟨me2, and not from the ⟨me1 syllable of the noun.[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Prefix[edit]

(すべ) (sube-

  1. (archaic) prefix of praise and respect, usually towards (kami, Shinto deities) or 天皇 (tennō, Emperor or Empress (regnant) of Japan):
    1. divine, godly, heavenly
    2. imperial, royal, august
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 4[edit]

Kanji in this term
すめ
Grade: 6
kun’yomi

⟨sume1 → */sumʲe//sume/

From Old Japanese. Appears to be the older form.[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Prefix[edit]

(すめ) (sume-

  1. (archaic) prefix of praise and respect, usually towards (kami, Shinto deities) or 天皇 (tennō, Emperor or Empress (regnant) of Japan):
    1. divine, godly, heavenly
    2. imperial, royal, august
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 5[edit]

Kanji in this term
すべら
Grade: 6
kun’yomi

From the prefix (sube-, see above) +‎ (-ra, nominalizing and pluralizing suffix).

Pronunciation[edit]

Prefix[edit]

(すべら) (subera-

  1. (archaic) prefix of praise and respect, usually towards (kami, Shinto deities) or 天皇 (tennō, Emperor or Empress (regnant) of Japan):
    1. divine, godly, heavenly
    2. imperial, royal, august
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 6[edit]

Kanji in this term
すめら
Grade: 6
kun’yomi

From the prefix (sume-) +‎ (-ra, nominalizing and pluralizing suffix).

Pronunciation[edit]

Prefix[edit]

(すめら) (sumera-

  1. (archaic) prefix of praise and respect, usually towards (kami, Shinto deities) or 天皇 (tennō, Emperor or Empress (regnant) of Japan):
    1. divine, godly, heavenly
    2. imperial, royal, august
Derived terms[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

(すめら) (Sumera

  1. a female given name

Etymology 7[edit]

Kanji in this term
すべらぎ
Grade: 6
kun’yomi
Alternative spelling 天皇

/sumeraɡi//suberaɡi/

Shift from sumeragi below, with the nasal /m/ becoming a plosive /b/.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): [sɨᵝbe̞ɾa̠ɡʲi]

Noun[edit]

(すべらぎ) (suberagi

  1. (archaic) a term of address for an Emperor or Empress (regnant) of Japan
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 8[edit]

Kanji in this term
すめらぎ
Grade: 6
kun’yomi
Alternative spelling 天皇

⟨sume1ro2ki1 → */sumʲerəkʲi/ → */sumeraki//sumeraɡi/

Possibly a shift from Old Japanese 天皇 (sume1ro2ki1).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): [sɨᵝme̞ɾa̠ɡʲi]

Noun[edit]

(すめらぎ) (sumeragi

  1. (archaic) a term of address for an Emperor or Empress (regnant) of Japan

Proper noun[edit]

(すめらぎ) (Sumeragi

  1. a female given name
  2. a surname​.

Etymology 9[edit]

Various nanori readings.

Proper noun[edit]

(きみ) (Kimi

  1. a female given name

(きらり) (Kirari

  1. a female given name

(ただす) (Tadasu

  1. a unisex given name

(みゆき) (Miyuki

  1. a female given name

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan

Korean[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(eumhun 임금 (imgeum hwang))

  1. Hanja form? of (king; monarch; ruler).
Compounds[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(eumhun 엄숙할 (eomsukhal wang))

  1. (archaic) Hanja form? of (to be solemn).

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

: Hán Việt readings: hoàng ((hồ)(quang)(thiết))[1][2][3][4], huỳnh[3][4]
: Nôm readings: hoàng[1][3][5], huỳnh[3]

  1. Hán tự form of hoàng (emperor).

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]