社会

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See also: 社會

Chinese[edit]

For pronunciation and definitions of – see 社會.
(This term, 社会, is the simplified form of 社會.)
Notes:

Japanese[edit]

Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
Kanji in this term
しゃ
Grade: 2
かい
Grade: 2
on'yomi

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Chinese 社會(dzyæX hwajH, with an original meaning of “public gathering for offering to the god of earth), as a compound composed of (god of earth; ceremony for offering to the god of earth) + (gathering). The word was repurposed by Fukuchi Gen'ichirō in 1875 to translate the western concept of society.[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

社会 ‎(shinjitai kanji, kyūjitai kanji 社會, hiragana しゃかい, romaji shakai, historical hiragana しやくわい)

  1. a society (group of people sharing culture)
    • 1910, 森鷗外, 鴎外漁史とは誰ぞ:
       (ひと)社会 (しゃかい) ()動物 (どうぶつ)だ。
      Hito wa shakai o nasu dōbutsu da.
      Man is an animal that builds societies / Man is a social animal.
  2. a class, a world of a certain group
    • 1904, 河口慧海, チベット旅行記:
      これらは中等以下 (ちゅうとういか)社会 (しゃかい) (ひと) (おお)い。
      Kore-ra wa chūtō ika no shakai no hito ni ōi.
      These are very common among people from the middle and lower classes.
    • 1929, 平林初之輔, 昭和四年の文壇の概観:
      ちょうどそれは金融寡頭政治 (きんゆうかとうせいじ)社会 (しゃかい)とよく ()ている。
      Chōdo sore wa kin'yū katōseiji no shakai to yoku nite iru.
      It looks exactly like a world of financial oligarchs.

Derived terms[edit]

Anagrams[edit]

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  3. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3
  4. ^ 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13143-0