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See also:
U+7D04, 約
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-7D04

[U+7D03]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+7D05]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 120, +3, 9 strokes, cangjie input 女火心戈 (VFPI) or 女火心一 (VFPM), four-corner 27920, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 915, character 21
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 27242
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1343, character 7
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 5, page 3364, character 15
  • Unihan data for U+7D04

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
約-silk.svg 約-seal.svg 約-bigseal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*preːwɢs
*preːwɢs, *preːwɢ
*breːw, *b·reːwɢs
*ʔreːwɢs, *ʔreːwɢ
*plew, *pʰlew, *bljewɢ, *pleːwɢ
*ʔlewɢs, *ʔlewɢ
*pleːwʔ, *pleːwɢ
*pleːwɢs
*teːwɢs
*ɡleːwʔ, *spʰlewɢ, *pl'ewɢ, *bljewɢ, *pleːwɢ
*pljewɢ
*pljewɢ
*pljewɢ, *bljewɢ
*pljewɢ
*pljewɢ
*pljewɢ, *bljewɢ
*bljewɢ, *sbreːwɢ
*bljewɢ
*qlewɢ, *qreːwɢ
礿 *lewɢ
*preːwɢ, *pleːwɢ
*breːwɢ
*pleːwɢ
*pleːwɢ
*pleːwɢ
*pleːwɢ
*pleːwɢ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ʔlewɢs, *ʔlewɢ): semantic  (rope) + phonetic  (OC *pljewɢ, *bljewɢ).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note: yāo - only the sense of “to weigh on a balance or scale”.
Note:
  • iók - literary;
  • ióh - vernacular.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • iok/iak - literary;
    • ioh - vernacular.
  • Wu

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /yɛ⁵⁵/
    Harbin /iau⁴⁴/
    /yɛ⁴⁴/
    Tianjin /ye²¹/
    Jinan /yə²¹³/
    Qingdao /yə⁵⁵/
    Zhengzhou /yo²⁴/
    Xi'an /yo²¹/
    Xining /yu⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /ye¹³/
    Lanzhou /yə¹³/
    Ürümqi /yɤ²¹³/
    Wuhan /io²¹³/
    Chengdu /yo³¹/
    Guiyang /io²¹/
    Kunming /io³¹/
    Nanjing /ioʔ⁵/
    Hefei /yɐʔ⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /yəʔ²/
    Pingyao /yʌʔ¹³/
    Hohhot /yaʔ⁴³/ 大~
    /iɔ³¹/ ~一~
    Wu Shanghai /iaʔ⁵/
    Suzhou /iɑʔ⁵/
    Hangzhou /ʔiɑʔ⁵/
    Wenzhou /j̠a²¹³/
    Hui Shexian /iɔʔ²¹/
    Tunxi /io⁵/
    Xiang Changsha /io²⁴/
    Xiangtan /io²⁴/
    Gan Nanchang /iɔʔ⁵/
    Hakka Meixian /iok̚¹/
    Taoyuan /ʒok̚⁵⁵/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /jœk̚²/
    Nanning /jœk̚³³/
    Hong Kong /jœk̚²/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /iɔk̚³²/
    /ioʔ³²/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /yɔʔ²³/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /iɔ²⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /iak̚²/
    /ioʔ²/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /iɔk̚⁵/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    Initial () (34) (34)
    Final () (91) (107)
    Tone (調) Departing (H) Checked (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open Open
    Division () III III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ʔiᴇuH/ /ʔɨɐk̚/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ʔiɛuH/ /ʔiɐk̚/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ʔjæuH/ /ʔiɑk̚/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ʔiawH/ /ʔɨak̚/
    Li
    Rong
    /ʔiɛuH/ /ʔiak̚/
    Wang
    Li
    /ĭɛuH/ /ĭak̚/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ʔi̯ɛuH/ /ʔi̯ak̚/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    yào yue
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    yào yuē
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ ʔjiewH › ‹ ʔjak ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[q]ewk-s/ /*[q](r)ewk/
    English bond, agreement (n.) bind (v.), make an agreement

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    No. 11181 11201
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    2 2
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ʔlewɢs/ /*ʔlewɢ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. to bundle up; to bind
    2. rope; cord
    3. to restrain; to limit; to keep under control
    4. to make an appointment; to arrange
    5. appointment; meeting; arrangement
    6. treaty; agreement; covenant; pact
    7. to invite or ask in advance
    8. to hinder; to block
    9. to save; to economise
    10. frugal; economical; thrifty
    11. brief; concise; succinct
    12. poor; humble; low-ranking
    13. (mathematics) to reduce (a fraction)
    14. to prepare; to equip
    15. to seek; to pursue
    16. to estimate; to approximate; to reckon
    17. (colloquial) to weigh; to weigh on a balance or scale
    18. about; approximately
      • 220大卡 / 220大卡  ―  yuē 220 dàkǎ  ―  Approximately 220 kilocalories.

    Compounds[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. Approximately

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]


    Kanji in this term
    やく
    Grade: 4
    on’yomi

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Adverb[edit]

    (hiragana やく, rōmaji yaku)

    1. about, approximately
       (やく) (いっ) (げつ)
      yaku ikkagetsu
      approximately one month
       () (ちゅう) (ちょっ) (けい) (やく)930 (きゅうひゃくさんじゅう)億光年 (おくこうねん)だ。
      Uchū no chokkei wa yaku kyūhyakusanjū-oku kōnen da.
      The diameter of the universe is some ninety-three billion light years.

    References[edit]

    1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (yak, yo) (hangeul , , revised yak, yo, McCune–Reischauer yak, yo, Yale yak, yo)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (ước, yêu)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.