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U+80F8, 胸
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-80F8

[U+80F7]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+80F9]
See also: and

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 130 +6, 10 strokes, cangjie input 月心山大 (BPUK), four-corner 77220, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 981, character 5
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 29442
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1432, character 32
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 3, page 2070, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+80F8

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Bamboo and silk script Small seal script
胸-silk.svg 胸-seal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*qʰos
*qʰoŋ
*qʰoŋ
*qʰoŋ, *qʰoŋʔ
*qʰoŋ
*qʰoŋ
*qʰoŋ
*qʰoŋ, *qʰoŋʔ
*qʰoŋ
*qʰoŋ, *qʰoŋʔ

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • hiong - literary;
  • heng - vernacular.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ɕyŋ⁵⁵/
Harbin /ɕyŋ⁴⁴/
Tianjin /ɕyŋ²¹/
Jinan /ɕyŋ²¹³/
Qingdao /ɕiŋ²¹³/
Zhengzhou /ɕyuŋ²⁴/
Xi'an /ɕyŋ²¹/
Xining /ɕyə̃⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /ɕyŋ⁴⁴/
Lanzhou /xỹn³¹/
Ürümqi /ɕyŋ⁴⁴/
Wuhan /ɕioŋ⁵⁵/
Chengdu /ɕyoŋ⁵⁵/
Guiyang /ɕioŋ⁵⁵/
Kunming /ɕioŋ⁴⁴/
Nanjing /ɕioŋ³¹/
Hefei /xiŋ²¹/
Jin Taiyuan /ɕyəŋ¹¹/
Pingyao /ɕyŋ¹³/
Hohhot /ɕỹŋ³¹/
Wu Shanghai /ɕioŋ⁵³/
Suzhou /ɕioŋ⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /ɕioŋ³³/
Wenzhou /ɕyɔ³³/
Hui Shexian /ɕyʌ̃³¹/
Tunxi /ɕin¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /ɕioŋ³³/
Xiangtan /ɕin³³/
Gan Nanchang /ɕiuŋ⁴²/
Hakka Meixian /hiuŋ⁴⁴/
Taoyuan /hioŋ²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /hoŋ⁵³/
Nanning /huŋ⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /huŋ⁵⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /hiɔŋ⁵⁵/
/hiŋ⁵⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /hyŋ⁴⁴/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /xœyŋ⁵⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /heŋ³³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /hiaŋ²³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (32)
Final () (7)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/hɨoŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/hioŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/xioŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/huawŋ/
Li
Rong
/xioŋ/
Wang
Li
/xĭwoŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/xi̯woŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
xiōng
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 13893
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*qʰoŋ/
Notes

Definitions[edit]

  1. chest; thorax
  2. breast; bosom
  3. (figuratively) mind; heart of hearts; thought

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 6 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
むな
Grade: 6
kun'yomi

From Old Japanese. Possibly the original form of mune below.[1]

Cognate with (muna, main roofline, roof ridge), from the underlying idea of central or main portion.[1]

Possibly also cognate with , (muna, emptiness, void), from the idea of cavity.

Seldom used in isolation even in Old Japanese. Only found as the first element of compounds in modern Japanese.[1][2]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana むな, romaji muna)

  1. chest, breast
    • 711-712, Kojiki (Kamitsumaki (“First Volume”))
      奴婆多麻能 久路岐美祁斯遠 / 麻都夫佐尓 登理與曾比 / 淤岐都登理 牟那美流登岐 / 波多多藝母 許禮婆布佐波受 / 幣都那美  曾迩奴岐宇弖
      ぬばたまの くろきみけしを / まつぶさに とりよそひ / おきつとり むなみるとき / はたたぎも これはふさはず / へつなみ そにだきうて
      nubatama no kuroki mikeshi o / matsubusa ni toriyosohi / oki tsu tori muna miru toki / hatatagi mo kore wa fusawazu / he tsu nami so ni dakiute
      I put on black iris-seed garments with schisandra, and though I fluff up my garments like when the ocean birds look at their chests, I say this is not good and I cast them off into the sea's waves...
  2. heart, inner thoughts
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
むね
Grade: 6
kun'yomi

Sound shift from muna above, from the fusion of muna with the emphatic nominal particle (i): /muna i//mune/. Similar to the phonetic process observed in the shift from (kamu, spirit, god, older form used in compounds) to (kami, newer form, used as a standalone noun).

Alternatively, may be a compound of (mu, body) +‎ (ne, root).[1]

Cognate with (mune, main roofline, roof ridge) and , (mune, gist, main idea, primary part), from the underlying idea of central or main portion.[1]

Notably, and also have an older reading muna that is only used in compounds (for , possibly only in place names). Meanwhile, (mune) appears later in the textual record (in the Uji Shūi Monogatari of the early 1200s), and this reading is used as a standalone noun rather than in compounds. This is consistent with other nouns that have paired vowel forms, and suggests that muna is probably the original form, and that the compound derivation is a folk etymology.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana むね, romaji mune)

  1. chest, breast
  2. heart, inner thoughts
     (むね) (なか) (あつ) (おも)
    mune no naka no atsui omoi
    the passion in one's heart
  3. bosom, breasts
    彼女 (かのじょ)はどんな (ふく) ()ても (むね)目立 (めだ)ちます。
    Kanojo wa donna fuku o kite mo mune ga medachimasu.
    No matter what clothes she wears, her chest always stands out.
Derived terms[edit]
Synonyms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(hyung) (hangeul , revised hyung, McCune-Reischauer hyung, Yale hyung)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(hung, hông)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.