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See also:
U+814E, 腎
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-814E

[U+814D]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+814F]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 130, +8, 12 strokes, cangjie input 尸水月 (SEB), four-corner 77227, composition)

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 987, character 2
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 29621
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1439, character 13
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 3, page 2086, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+814E

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.

Glyph origin[edit]

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*kʰaːn, *kʰriːn, *ɡiːn, *kʰins
*kʰriːn, *kʰiːn
*kʰriːn
*ɡriːn, *ɡriːns
*kiːn
*kiːn, *kiːns
*kiːn
*kʰiːnʔ
*kʰiːns, *kʰins
*ɡiːn
*ɡiːn, *ɢrin
*ɡiːnʔ
*kiŋs
*ɡiŋ
*ɡiŋ
*ɡjinʔ
*hŋiŋʔ
*kinʔ
*ŋɡriŋ
*kʰreːŋ
*kʰreːŋ
*kʰreːŋ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ɡjinʔ): phonetic  (OC *kʰaːn, *kʰriːn, *ɡiːn, *kʰins) + semantic  (meat; flesh) – a body part, the kidneys.

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *m-k(j)un (kidney). Cognate with Burmese ကုန်း (kun:, back).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • san6 - literary (“kidney; testicle”);
  • san5, san5-2 - vernacular (“gizzard”).
  • Gan
  • Hakka
  • Jin
  • Min Bei
  • Min Dong
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • sīn - literary;
    • siān/siǎn - vernacular.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (25)
    Final () (43)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /d͡ʑiɪnX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /d͡ʑinX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /d͡ʑjenX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /d͡ʑinX/
    Li
    Rong
    /ʑiĕnX/
    Wang
    Li
    /ʑĭĕnX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ʑi̯ĕnX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    shèn
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    shèn
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ dzyinX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*Cə.[ɡ]i[n]ʔ/
    English kidney

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 1344
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ɡjinʔ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. (anatomy) kidney
    2. (traditional Chinese medicine) testicle
    3. (Cantonese) gizzard
      / [Cantonese]  ―  gai1 san5 [Jyutping]  ―  chicken gizzard

    Synonyms[edit]

    Dialectal synonyms of (“kidney”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese 腎水水藏
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 腎臟
    Mandarin Beijing 腰子
    Taiwan 腰子
    Harbin
    Jinan 腰子
    Muping 腰子
    Luoyang
    Xi'an
    Xining
    Xuzhou 腰子
    Yinchuan 腰子
    Lanzhou 腰子
    Ürümqi 腰子
    Wuhan 腰子
    Chengdu 腎臟
    Guiyang 腰子
    Yangzhou 腰子
    Nanjing 腰子
    Cantonese Guangzhou
    Hong Kong
    Dongguan
    Gan Lichuan 腰子
    Pingxiang 腰子
    Hakka Meixian
    Yudu 腰子
    Miaoli (N. Sixian) 腰仔腎家
    Liudui (S. Sixian) 腰仔腎家
    Hsinchu (Hailu) 腰仔腎家
    Dongshi (Dabu) 腎家
    Zhuolan (Raoping) 腰仔腎家
    Yunlin (Zhao'an) 腰子
    Huizhou Jixi 腰子
    Jin Taiyuan 腰子
    Xinzhou 腰子
    Min Bei Jian'ou 腰仔
    Min Dong Fuzhou 腰子腰心子
    Min Nan Xiamen 腰子
    Quanzhou 腰子
    Zhangzhou 腰子
    Taipei 腰子
    Kaohsiung 腰子
    Tainan 腰子
    Taichung 腰子
    Hsinchu 腰子
    Lukang 腰子
    Sanxia 腰子
    Yilan 腰子
    Kinmen 腰子
    Magong 腰子
    Penang 腰子
    Haikou
    Pinghua Nanning
    Wu Shanghai 腰子腎臟
    Suzhou 腰子
    Hangzhou 腰子
    Chongming 腰子
    Danyang 腰子
    Jinhua 腰子
    Tangxi
    Ningbo 腰子
    Xiang Loudi 腰子
    Dialectal synonyms of 睪丸 (“testicle”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese 外腎
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 睪丸精巢
    Mandarin Beijing 卵子兒
    Harbin 卵子兒
    Jinan 球蛋
    Luoyang 蛋子兒
    Jiedian
    Xi'an 蛋子兒
    Yinchuan 卵子
    Lanzhou 脬子兒
    Ürümqi 脬卵子卵子
    Wuhan 卵子卵蛋卵坨
    Chengdu 卵蛋蛋蛋卵子敲敲兒
    Guiyang 卵蛋
    Liuzhou 卵考子考子
    Yangzhou 卵蛋卵子子
    Nanjing 卵子
    Cantonese Hong Kong 春子波子
    Hong Kong (Weitou)
    Kuala Lumpur 春仔
    Gan Lichuan 順子
    Pingxiang 卵坨子
    Hakka Meixian 核卵
    Yudu 卵子
    Miaoli (N. Sixian) 核卵
    Liudui (S. Sixian) 核卵
    Hsinchu (Hailu) 核卵
    Dongshi (Dabu) 核卵
    Zhuolan (Raoping) 核卵
    Yunlin (Zhao'an) 核卵
    Hong Kong 核卵
    Sabah 核卵
    Senai
    Singkawang 核卵
    Huizhou Jixi 卵子
    Jin Xinzhou 蛋籽子
    Min Dong Fuzhou 𡳞核子
    Min Nan Xiamen 𡳞核腎子
    Quanzhou 𡳞核腎子
    Zhangzhou 𡳞核腎子
    Taipei 𡳞核𡳞脬核仔
    Kaohsiung 𡳞核𡳞核仔
    Tainan 𡳞核𡳞核仔
    Taichung 𡳞核仔
    Wuqi 𡳞核
    Hsinchu 𡳞核𡳞核仔
    Taitung 𡳞核仔
    Lukang 𡳞核𡳞核仔
    Sanxia 𡳞核
    Yilan 𡳞核
    Kinmen 𡳞核
    Magong 𡳞核
    Penang 𡳞核𡳞脬子
    Shantou 𡳞核
    Haifeng 𡳞脬核
    Haikou 𡳞脬仁
    Leizhou 𡳞脬子𡳞脬核核子
    Pinghua Nanning 卵子
    Wu Shanghai 卵子
    Suzhou 卵子
    Hangzhou 卵子
    Wenzhou 卵子卵袋子陰袋子
    Danyang 卵脬黃卵子黃
    Jinhua 老核子
    Ningbo 卵黃卵袋黃
    Xiang Loudi 考子卵子

    Compounds[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    /murato1/ → /murato/.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana むらと, rōmaji murato)

    1. kidney

    Etymology 2[edit]

    From earlier /murato/. Voicing suggests that it was originally a compound of mura and to.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana むらど, rōmaji murado)

    1. kidney
      • 931938, Wamyō Ruijushō, book 2, page 35-36:
        腎 白虎通云 時忍反 上聲之重 无良度 [...] 水之精也 色黑 [...] 水藏也 [...]

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (common “Jōyō” kanji)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
    Readings[edit]
    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]


    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (sin) (hangeul , revised sin, McCune–Reischauer sin, Yale sin)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (thận)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.