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See also:
U+81BD, 膽
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-81BD

[U+81BC]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+81BE]

Translingual[edit]

Japanese
Simplified
Traditional

Han character[edit]

(radical 130, +13, 17 strokes, cangjie input 月弓金口 (BNCR), four-corner 77261, composition)

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 995, character 23
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 29933
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1446, character 34
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 3, page 2117, character 7
  • Unihan data for U+81BD

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.
Wikipedia has articles on:

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Small seal script
膽-seal.svg

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *taːmʔ): semantic (body part) + phonetic (OC *tjam).

Etymology[edit]

Austroasiatic (Schuessler, 2007); compare Proto-Vietic *lɔːm, Proto-Katuic *lɔɔm, Proto-Bahnaric *kləːm, etc. from Proto-Mon-Khmer *t₁ləəm ~ *t₁luəm "liver".

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • táⁿ - vernacular;
  • tám - literary.
  • Wu

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (5)
    Final () (143)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /tɑmX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /tɑmX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /tɑmX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /tamX/
    Li
    Rong
    /tɑmX/
    Wang
    Li
    /tɑmX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /tɑmX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    dǎn
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    dǎn
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ tamX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[t]ˁamʔ/
    English gall

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 16751
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*taːmʔ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. (anatomy) gallbladder
      /   ―  dǎnnáng  ―  gall bladder
    2. (figurative) guts; courage; bravery; strength; nerve
      /   ―  dǎn  ―  bold
      / [Cantonese]  ―  mou5 daam2 gwai2 [Jyutping]  ―  coward
    3. inner container; liner (of a thermos); bladder (of a ball)

    Compounds[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Shinjitai

    Kyūjitai

    Kanji[edit]

    (uncommon “Hyōgai” kanjikyūjitai kanji, shinjitai form )

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Readings[edit]

    • Go-on: たん (tan)
    • Kan-on: たん (tan)
    • Kun: きも (kimo, )

    Korean[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC tɑmX). Recorded as Middle Korean  (Yale: tam) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

    Hanja[edit]

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 쓸개 (sseulgae dam))

    1. Hanja form? of (gall bladder).
    2. Hanja form? of (courage).

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (đảm)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.