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See also:
U+81C9, 臉
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-81C9

[U+81C8]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+81CA]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 130 +13, 17 strokes, cangjie input 月人一人 (BOMO), four-corner 78286, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 996, character 17
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 29954
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1447, character 19
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 3, page 2117, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+81C9

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.

Glyph origin[edit]

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*raːm, *kʰreːm, *kʰlam
*qʰlaːm
*ɡ·reːmʔ, *skʰlam, *kramʔ
*ɡr·reːmʔ, *skʰraːmʔ
*kreːmʔ, *skʰlam
*ɡ·ram, *ɡ·ramʔ, *qʰram
*ɡ·ram
*ɡ·ram, *ɡ·ramʔ, *ɡ·rams, *qʰramʔ
*ɡ·ram, *ɡ·ramʔ, *qʰlam
*ɡ·ram
*ɡ·ramʔ, *ɡ·rams
*ɡ·ramʔ, *ɡ·rams
*ɡ·ramʔ, *kramʔ
*ɡ·ramʔ
*ɡ·rams
*skʰlam
*skʰlam
*skʰlam, *skʰlamʔ, *sqʰlam, *qʰramʔ
*skʰlam, *qʰramʔ
*kramʔ
*kramʔ
*ɡramʔ
*ŋramʔ, *rlɯmʔ, *kʰrɯmʔ
*ŋramʔ
*ŋramʔ, *hŋramʔ
*ŋramʔ, *ŋrams
*ŋrams
*qʰramʔ
*kams
*kams
𩏩 *qʰam

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ɡ·reːmʔ, *skʰlam, *kramʔ): semantic  (body part) + phonetic  (OC *skʰlam).

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s-gram (cheek; face). Cognate with Tibetan འགྲམ་པ ('gram pa, cheek), འགྲམ་རུས ('gram rus, cheekbone) (Schuessler, 2007).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • liám - literary;
  • lián - vernacular.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Initial () (14) (37)
Final () (153) (151)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open Open
Division () III II
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/t͡sʰiᴇm/ /lˠɛmX/
Pan
Wuyun
/t͡sʰiɛm/ /lᵚæmX/
Shao
Rongfen
/t͡sʰjæm/ /lɐmX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/t͡sʰiam/ /ləɨmX/
Li
Rong
/t͡sʰiɛm/ /lɐmX/
Wang
Li
/t͡sʰĭɛm/ /lɐmX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/t͡sʰi̯ɛm/ /lămX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
qiān lǎn
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/3 2/3 3/3
No. 10180 10203 10212
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
2 1 1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɡ·reːmʔ/ /*skʰlam/ /*kramʔ/
Notes

Definitions[edit]

  1. (anatomy) cheek
  2. (anatomy) face
  3. (by extension) facial expression; complexion
  4. (figuratively) front part of something
  5. (figuratively) reputation; face; image

Synonyms[edit]

Dialectal synonyms of (“face”) [map]
Variety Location Words
Classical Chinese
Formal (Written Standard Chinese)
Mandarin Beijing
Taiwan
Tianjin
Harbin
Hailar 臉蛋子
Ulan Hot 臉蛋子
Tongliao 臉蛋子
Chifeng
Baochang
Bayanhot
Jinan
Muping
Luoyang
Jiedian
Xi'an
Xining
Xuzhou 臉兒臉膛子
Yinchuan
Lanzhou
Ürümqi
Wuhan
Chengdu
Guiyang
Guilin
Liuzhou
Yangzhou
Nanjing
Hefei
Cantonese Guangzhou
Hong Kong
Dongguan
Hong Kong (Weitou)
Taishan
Yangjiang
Nanning
Wuzhou
Yulin
Hepu
Kuala Lumpur
Gan Nanchang
Lichuan
Pingxiang
Hakka Meixian
Xingning
Huidong
Qujiang
Xiaosanjiang
Luchuan
Changting
Pingyu
Wuping
Liancheng
Ninghua
Yudu 面盤
Ruijin
Shicheng
Shangyou
Miaoli (N. Sixian)
Liudui (S. Sixian)
Hsinchu (Hailu)
Dongshi (Dabu)
Zhuolan (Raoping)
Yunlin (Zhao'an)
Hong Kong
Sabah 面鉢
Senai 面鉢
Singkawang
Huizhou Jixi
Jin Taiyuan
Xinzhou
Jining
Hohhot
Baotou
Dongsheng 眉眼
Linhe
Haibowan
Min Bei Jian'ou
Min Dong Fuzhou
Fuqing 面䫌
Matsu
Min Nan Xiamen
Quanzhou
Zhangzhou
Taipei
Kaohsiung
Tainan
Taichung
Hsinchu
Lukang
Sanxia
Yilan
Kinmen
Magong
Penang
Singapore
Philippines (Manila)
Pingnan
Chaozhou
Johor Bahru
Haikou
Leizhou
Puxian Min Putian
Pinghua Nanning
Guilin
Wu Shanghai 面孔面顴
Suzhou 面孔
Hangzhou 臉孔
Wenzhou 面股
Chongming 面孔
Danyang 面孔
Jinhua 面孔
Ningbo 面孔
Xiang Changsha
Shuangfeng
Loudi
Quanzhou

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(uncommon “Hyōgai” kanji)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Readings[edit]


Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(kiểm, quặm)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.