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See also:
U+8239, 船
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-8239

[U+8238]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+823A]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
11 strokes

Alternative forms[edit]

The top-right part can be either or , depending on the script; Japanese: , Chinese: ; see Han unification

Han character[edit]

(radical 137 +5, 11 strokes, cangjie input 竹卜金口 (HYCR) or 竹卜竹弓口 (HYHNR), four-corner 28460, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1010, character 17
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 30407
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1468, character 15
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 5, page 3060, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+8239

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Bronze inscriptions Small seal script
船-bronze.svg 船-seal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series (沿) (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*ɦljon
*ɦljon
沿 *lon
*lon
*kljoŋ, *lon

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ɦljon): semantic  (boat) + phonetic  (OC *lon).

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *m-lawŋ (boat). Compare Burmese လောင်း (laung:, long and narrow boat).

Sagart (1999) interprets Old Chinese (OC *ɦljon) as a nominal derivate of the verb 沿 (OC *lon, “to go downstream a river”). The Fangyan states the this word was commonly used in western China, but, by Han times, it had completely desplaced the earlier (OC *tjɯw), used in central and western China.

Alternatively, the Proto-Sino-Tibetan root could be a loan from Proto-Mon-Khmer *d₂lu(u)ŋ ~ *d₂l(u)əŋ (boat), whence Mon ဂၠုၚ် (klɜ̀ŋ, canoe, small boat), perhaps a derivate of Proto-Mon-Khmer *luŋh ~ *luuŋh ~ *ləŋh (to hollow, excavate, bore), see Khmer លុង (lung, to dig a hole) and Vietnamese trũng (concave) (Sidwell, 2006; Schuessler, 2007).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • chûn - vernacular;
  • soân - literary.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ʈ͡ʂʰuan³⁵/
Harbin /ʈ͡ʂʰuan²⁴/
Tianjin /ʈ͡ʂʰuan⁴⁵/
/t͡sʰuan⁴⁵/
Jinan /ʈ͡ʂʰuã⁴²/
Qingdao /t͡sʰuã⁴²/
Zhengzhou /ʈ͡ʂʰuan⁴²/
Xi'an /p͡fʰã²⁴/
Xining /ʈ͡ʂʰuã²⁴/
Yinchuan /ʈ͡ʂʰuan⁵³/
Lanzhou /p͡fʰɛ̃n⁵³/
Ürümqi /ʈ͡ʂʰuan⁵¹/
Wuhan /t͡sʰuan²¹³/
Chengdu /t͡sʰuan³¹/
Guiyang /t͡sʰuan²¹/
Kunming /ʈ͡ʂʰuã̠³¹/
Nanjing /ʈ͡ʂʰuaŋ²⁴/
Hefei /ʈ͡ʂʰʊ̃⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /t͡sʰuæ̃¹¹/
Pingyao /t͡sʰuɑŋ¹³/
Hohhot /t͡sʰʰuæ̃³¹/
Wu Shanghai /zø²³/
Suzhou /zø¹³/
Hangzhou /d͡zz̩ʷõ²¹³/
Wenzhou /jy³¹/
Hui Shexian /t͡ɕʰye⁴⁴/
Tunxi /ɕyɛ⁴⁴/
Xiang Changsha /t͡ɕyẽ¹³/
Xiangtan /d͡ʑyẽ¹²/
Gan Nanchang /sɵn⁴⁵/
Hakka Meixian /son¹¹/
Taoyuan /ʃon¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /syn²¹/
Nanning /syn²¹/
Hong Kong /syn²¹/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /suan³⁵/
/t͡sun³⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /suŋ⁵³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /yiŋ²¹/
Shantou (Min Nan) /t͡suŋ⁵⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /tun³¹/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (27)
Final () (78)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ʑiuᴇn/
Pan
Wuyun
/ʑʷiɛn/
Shao
Rongfen
/ʑjuæn/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ʑwian/
Li
Rong
/d͡ʑiuɛn/
Wang
Li
/d͡ʑĭwɛn/
Bernard
Karlgren
/d͡ʑʰi̯wɛn/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
shuán
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
chuán
Middle
Chinese
‹ zywen ›
Old
Chinese
/*Cə.lo[n]/
English boat

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 14278
Phonetic
component
沿
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
3
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɦljon/

Definitions[edit]

  1. watercraft; vessel (including ships, boats, sailing ships, hovercrafts; sometimes including submarines) (Classifier: m;  m;  m)
  2. any objects with shapes of functions simiar to watercraft
    太空  ―  tàikōngchuán  ―  spaceship
    1. alcohol cup
  3. to carry by watercraft
  4. button
  5. A surname​.

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. ship, vessel, large ship

Readings[edit]

Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
ふね
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana ふね, rōmaji fune)

  1. ship, vessel, larger ship
See also[edit]
Synonyms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
ふな
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana ふな, rōmaji funa)

  1. ship, vessel, larger ship
See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(seon) (hangeul , revised seon, McCune-Reischauer sŏn, Yale sen)

  1. ship, boat, vessel

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(thuyền)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.