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U+8981, 要
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-8981

[U+8980]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+8982]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
9 strokes
Stroke order
要-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 146, +3, 9 strokes, cangjie input 一田女 (MWV), four-corner 10404, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1128, character 16
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 34768
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1597, character 4
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 4, page 2805, character 8
  • Unihan data for U+8981

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
要-bronze.svg 要-seal.svg 要-bigseal.svg

Pictogram (象形): a woman () with two hands pointing to her midsection.

Original meaning was “waist” (now (OC *qew)). The hands gradually shifted upwards; the in the modern form evolved from the hands and the woman's head.

Pronunciation 1[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (34)
Final () (91)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ʔiᴇu/
Pan
Wuyun
/ʔiɛu/
Shao
Rongfen
/ʔjæu/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ʔiaw/
Li
Rong
/ʔiɛu/
Wang
Li
/ĭɛu/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ʔi̯ɛu/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
yāo
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 14748
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
2
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*qew/

Definitions[edit]

  1. to demand; to ask; to request
      ―  yāoqiú  ―  to request
  2. to force; to coerce
    /   ―  yāoxié  ―  to threaten, to blackmail
  3. to promise
    /   ―  yāoyuē  ―  to restrict, to agree to a contract/offer/bid
  4. to block; to intercept
    /   ―  yāo  ―  to intercept, to ambush
  5. Alternative form of (“to invite”).
  6. Alternative form of (“waist”).
  7. contract of alliance
      ―  jiǔyāo  ―  former contract
  8. A surname​.
  9. to want

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese: (よう) ()
  • Korean: (, yo)
  • Vietnamese: yêu ()

Compounds[edit]

Pronunciation 2[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (34)
Final () (91)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ʔiᴇuH/
Pan
Wuyun
/ʔiɛuH/
Shao
Rongfen
/ʔjæuH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ʔiawH/
Li
Rong
/ʔiɛuH/
Wang
Li
/ĭɛuH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ʔi̯ɛuH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
yào
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
yào
Middle
Chinese
‹ ʔjiewH ›
Old
Chinese
/*[q]ew(k)-s/
English important

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 14752
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
2
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*qews/

Definitions[edit]

  1. to want; to wish; to need: to demand
    睡覺 / 睡觉  ―  yào shuìjiào.  ―  I want to sleep.
  2. will; going to (future auxiliary)
      ―  yào zǒu le.  ―  I am going to go.
  3. about to
  4. should; to must; to have to
      ―  yào hē jiǔ.  ―  Don't drink alcohol.
  5. vital; important
      ―  zhòngyào  ―  important
      ―  zhǔyào  ―  main
  6. if; in case of
Synonyms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic ():

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

See also 要する

Kanji[edit]

(grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. need, necessity
  2. essential

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
よう
Grade: 4
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese (MC ʔiᴇu, ʔiᴇuH).

First cited to 611.[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(よう) ( (historical kana えう)

  1. [611] key, important point
  2. [circa 999] essential piece of something, requirement

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
かなめ
Grade: 4
kun’yomi
(kaname, kanome): the kaname is the metal rivet at the base of the handle.
(kaname, kanome): close-up of the kaname of a fan.

/kani no me//kanome//kaname/

A shift from older 蟹の目 (kani no me, crab's eye) from a superficial resemblance of the round pinhead of a folding fan to a crab's eye, influenced by a reanalysis of the term as (kaname, literally “metal” + visually prominent feature), as the pins were increasingly made from metal instead of earlier bamboo, wood, or whalebone.

First cited to 1220.[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(かなめ) (kaname

  1. [1254] the pin or rivet holding the spines of a folding fan together
    Synonyms: (kanome), 蟹の目 (kani no me)
  2. [1220] (by extension) a pivot, cornerstone, keystone
    Synonym: 要石 (kaname ishi) (cornerstone, keystone)
  3. [1612] a pin, often decorated, holding the handle to the tang of a katana
    Synonym: 目貫 (menuki)
  4. [1712] short for 要黐 (kaname mochi), a kind of tree, the Japanese photinia or Photinia glabra
    Synonyms: カナメモチ (kaname mochi), 要黐 (kaname mochi) (kanji spelling seems to be less common)
  5. [1906] (architecture) in a certain kind of traditional Japanese hip roof where the rafters splay out like the spines of a fan, the central point to which the rafter lines converge
    Coordinate term: 扇垂木 (ōgi taruki) (literally “fan rafter”)

Proper noun[edit]

(かなめ) (Kaname

  1. a male given name

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
かのめ
Grade: 4
kun’yomi

/kani no me//kanome/

A shift from older 蟹の目 (kani no me, crab's eye) from a superficial resemblance of the round pinhead of a folding fan to a crab's eye, influenced by a reanalysis of the term as (kaname, literally “metal” + visually prominent feature), as the pins were increasingly made from metal instead of earlier bamboo, wood, or whalebone.

First cited to roughly 1140.[1] This reading may be obsolete, and it is not included in some dictionaries.[2][3][4]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(かのめ) (kanome

  1. [circa 1140] (archaic, possibly obsolete) the pin or rivet holding the spines of a folding fan together
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 4[edit]

Kanji in this term
ぬみ
Grade: 4
kun’yomi
Kanji in this term
ぬま
Grade: 4
kun’yomi
Alternative spelling 要害

From Old Japanese. Further derivation unknown.

First cited in the Nihon Shoki of 720 CE, listed with both readings numa and numi.[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(ぬま) or (ぬみ) (numa or numi

  1. [720] (archaic, possibly obsolete) fortress, redoubt
  2. [720] (archaic, possibly obsolete) important point, key

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  3. 3.0 3.1 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
  4. 4.0 4.1 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

Further reading[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(eumhun 요긴할 (yoginhal yo))

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(yếu)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.