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See also:
U+8981, 要
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-8981

[U+8980]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+8982]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
9 strokes
Stroke order
要-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 146, +3, 9 strokes, cangjie input 一田女 (MWV), four-corner 10404, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1128, character 16
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 34768
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1597, character 4
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 4, page 2805, character 8
  • Unihan data for U+8981

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
要-bronze.svg 要-seal.svg 要-bigseal.svg

Pictogram (象形): a woman () with two hands pointing to her midsection.

Original meaning was “waist” (now (OC *qew)). The hands gradually shifted upwards; the in the modern form evolved from the hands and the woman's head.

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Note:
  • iou1 - Chaozhou;
  • iao1 - Shantou, Jieyang, Chaoyang.
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (34)
    Final () (91)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ʔiᴇu/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ʔiɛu/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ʔjæu/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ʔiaw/
    Li
    Rong
    /ʔiɛu/
    Wang
    Li
    /ĭɛu/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ʔi̯ɛu/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    yāo
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    jiu1
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 14748
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    2
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*qew/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. to demand; to ask; to request
        ―  yāoqiú  ―  to request
    2. to force; to coerce
      /   ―  yāoxié  ―  to threaten, to blackmail
    3. to promise
      /   ―  yāoyuē  ―  to restrict, to agree to a contract/offer/bid
    4. to block; to intercept
      /   ―  yāo  ―  to intercept, to ambush
    5. Alternative form of (“to invite”).
    6. Alternative form of (“waist”).
    7. contract of alliance
        ―  jiǔyāo  ―  former contract
    8. A surname.

    Descendants[edit]

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: (よう) ()
    • Korean: (, yo)
    • Vietnamese: yêu ()

    Compounds[edit]

    Pronunciation 2[edit]


    Note:
    • iou3 - Chaozhou;
    • iao3 - Shantou, Jieyang, Chaoyang.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (34)
    Final () (91)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ʔiᴇuH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ʔiɛuH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ʔjæuH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ʔiawH/
    Li
    Rong
    /ʔiɛuH/
    Wang
    Li
    /ĭɛuH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ʔi̯ɛuH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    yào
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    jiu3
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    yào
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ ʔjiewH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[q]ew(k)-s/
    English important

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 14752
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    2
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*qews/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. to want; to wish; to need; to demand
      睡覺 / 睡觉  ―  yào shuìjiào.  ―  I want to sleep.
        ―  yàoyào hē chá?  ―  Do you want some tea?
      老闆馬上回復 [MSC, trad.]
      老板马上回复 [MSC, simp.]
      Lǎobǎn yào wǒ mǎshàng huífù. [Pinyin]
      My boss demanded that I reply immediately.
    2. will; going to (future auxiliary)
        ―  yào zǒu le.  ―  I am going to go.
      我們遲到 [MSC, trad.]
      我们迟到 [MSC, simp.]
      Wǒ pà wǒmen yào chídào le. [Pinyin]
      I fear that we will be late.
    3. about to
      出便好似落雨 [Cantonese, trad. and simp.]
      ceot1 bin6 gam3 hak1, jau6 hou2 ci5 jiu3 lok6 jyu5 gam2. [Jyutping]
      It looks like it's going to rain outside.
    4. should; to must; to have to
        ―  yào hē jiǔ.  ―  Don't drink alcohol.
      今天一定看病 [MSC, trad. and simp.]
      Nǐ jīntiān yīdìng yào qù kànbìng. [Pinyin]
      You must go to the doctor today.
      一會兒老闆現在不可開交 [MSC, trad.]
      一会儿老板现在不可开交 [MSC, simp.]
      yào děng yīhuìr, wǒ de lǎobǎn xiànzài zhèng máng de bùkěkāijiāo. [Pinyin]
      You have to wait a moment. My boss is extremely busy now.
    5. vital; important
        ―  zhòngyào  ―  important
        ―  zhǔyào  ―  main
    6. if; in case of
      腰帶用不著吊帶 [MSC, trad.]
      腰带用不着吊带 [MSC, simp.]
      Yào jì yāodài, jiù yòngbùzháo diàodài le. [Pinyin]
      You don't need braces if you're wearing a belt.

    Usage notes[edit]

    • Beware that 要飯要饭 (yàofàn, literally “to want rice”) is a phrase with the meaning "to be a beggar/loafer" which is insulting to others and should be avoided when asking a person whether they want rice.
    Synonyms[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    Sino-Xenic ():

    Compounds[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    See also 要する

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. need, necessity
    2. essential

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    よう
    Grade: 4
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (MC ʔiᴇu, ʔiᴇuH).

    First cited to 611.[1]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (よう) (えう (eu)?

    1. [611] key, important point
    2. [circa 999] essential piece of something, requirement

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    かなめ
    Grade: 4
    kun’yomi
    (kaname, kanome): the kaname is the metal rivet at the base of the handle.
    (kaname, kanome): close-up of the kaname of a fan.

    /kani no me//kanome//kaname/

    A shift from older 蟹の目 (kani no me, crab's eye) from a superficial resemblance of the round pinhead of a folding fan to a crab's eye, influenced by a reanalysis of the term as (kaname, literally “metal” + visually prominent feature), as the pins were increasingly made from metal instead of earlier bamboo, wood, or whalebone.

    First cited to 1220.[1]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (かなめ) (kaname

    1. [1254] the pin or rivet holding the spines of a folding fan together
      Synonyms: (kanome), 蟹の目 (kani no me)
    2. [1220] (by extension) a pivot, cornerstone, keystone
      Synonym: 要石 (kaname ishi) (cornerstone, keystone)
    3. [1612] a pin, often decorated, holding the handle to the tang of a katana
      Synonym: 目貫 (menuki)
    4. [1712] short for 要黐 (kaname mochi), a kind of tree, the Japanese photinia or Photinia glabra
      Synonyms: カナメモチ (kaname mochi), 要黐 (kaname mochi) (kanji spelling seems to be less common)
    5. [1906] (architecture) in a certain kind of traditional Japanese hip roof where the rafters splay out like the spines of a fan, the central point to which the rafter lines converge
      Coordinate term: 扇垂木 (ōgi taruki) (literally “fan rafter”)

    Proper noun[edit]

    (かなめ) (Kaname

    1. a female given name

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    かのめ
    Grade: 4
    kun’yomi

    /kani no me//kanome/

    A shift from older 蟹の目 (kani no me, crab's eye) from a superficial resemblance of the round pinhead of a folding fan to a crab's eye, influenced by a reanalysis of the term as (kaname, literally “metal” + visually prominent feature), as the pins were increasingly made from metal instead of earlier bamboo, wood, or whalebone.

    First cited to roughly 1140.[1] This reading may be obsolete, and it is not included in some dictionaries.[2][3][4]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (かのめ) (kanome

    1. [circa 1140] (archaic, possibly obsolete) the pin or rivet holding the spines of a folding fan together
    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 4[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    ぬみ
    Grade: 4
    kun’yomi
    Kanji in this term
    ぬま
    Grade: 4
    kun’yomi
    Alternative spelling
    要害

    From Old Japanese. Further derivation unknown.

    First cited in the Nihon Shoki of 720 C.E., listed with both readings numa and numi.[1]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (ぬま) or (ぬみ) (numa or numi

    1. [720] (archaic, possibly obsolete) fortress, redoubt
    2. [720] (archaic, possibly obsolete) important point, key

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    3. 3.0 3.1 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
    4. 4.0 4.1 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    Further reading[edit]


    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun 중요할 (jung-yohal yo))

    1. Hanja form? of (importance).

    Compounds[edit]


    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Nôm readings: yếu

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.