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See also:
U+8AB0, 誰
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-8AB0

[U+8AAF]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+8AB1]

Translingual[edit]

Japanese stroke order
15 strokes

Han character[edit]

(radical 149 +8, 15 strokes, cangjie input 卜口人土 (YROG), four-corner 00614, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1165, character 11
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 35686
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1630, character 27
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 6, page 3987, character 10
  • Unihan data for U+8AB0

Chinese[edit]

Glyph origin[edit]

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*lus, *rulʔ, *luls
*tuːl
*tuːl
*tuːls
*tʰuːl, *tʰjul
*tʰuːl, *tʰjul
*duːlʔ
*duːl
*stuːlʔ
*zluːl, *sʰluːl
*ŋreːl, *rulʔ
*dul
*dul
*tjul
*tjul
*kljul
*tjul
*sɢʷinʔ, *tjul
*djul
*djul

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *djul): semantic  (speak) + phonetic  (OC *tjul).

Etymology 1[edit]

trad.
simp.

From *du + *-i (suffix in independent pronouns); cognate with (OC *du, “who”), (OC *djɯwɢ, “which one; who”) (Schuessler, 2007). In other Sino-Tibetan languages, compare Mizo (who; which), Chepang दोह्‌ (what), Proto-Kuki-Chin *tuu (who; which (relativizer)) (Schuessler, 2007; STEDT).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • sûi - literary;
  • chûi - vernacular.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ʂei³⁵/
/ʂuei³⁵/
Harbin /ʂei²⁴/
/ʂuei²⁴/
Tianjin /sei⁴⁵/
/suei⁴⁵/
Jinan /ʂuei⁴²/
/ʂei⁴²/
Qingdao /ʂe⁴²/
Zhengzhou /ʂuei⁴²/
/ʂei⁴²/
Xi'an /sei²⁴/
Xining /fɨ²⁴/
Yinchuan /ʂuei⁵³/
Lanzhou /fei⁵³/
Ürümqi /sei⁵¹/
Wuhan /suei²¹³/
Chengdu /suei³¹/
Guiyang /suei²¹/
Kunming /suei³¹/
Nanjing /ʂuəi²⁴/
Hefei /ʂue⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /sei¹¹/
/suei¹¹/
Pingyao /suei¹³/
Hohhot /suei³¹/
Wu Shanghai /zø²³/
Suzhou /ze̞¹³/
Hangzhou /d͡zz̩ʷei²¹³/
Wenzhou /zz̩³¹/
Hui Shexian /ɕye⁴⁴/
Tunxi
Xiang Changsha /ɕyei¹³/
Xiangtan /ɕyəi¹²/
Gan Nanchang
Hakka Meixian /sui¹¹/
Taoyuan
Cantonese Guangzhou /søy²¹/
Nanning /sui²¹/
Hong Kong /søy²¹/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /sui³⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /suoi⁵³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /sy³³/
Shantou (Min Nan) /sui⁵⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /ʔdiaŋ³³/ 訓讀

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (25)
Final () (16)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/d͡ʑiuɪ/
Pan
Wuyun
/d͡ʑʷi/
Shao
Rongfen
/d͡ʑjuɪ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/d͡ʑwi/
Li
Rong
/ʑui/
Wang
Li
/ʑwi/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ʑwi/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
chuí
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 17725
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
2
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*djul/

Definitions[edit]

  1. who; whom
  2. someone; anyone
  3. anyone; whoever
  4. A surname​.

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

trad.
simp.
alt. forms

Contraction of 啥人 (siáⁿ-lâng).

Pronunciation[edit]


Definitions[edit]

  1. (Min Nan) who; whom

Etymology 3[edit]

trad.
simp.

Contraction of 底人 (tī-lâng).

Pronunciation[edit]


Definitions[edit]

  1. (Min Nan, including Xiamen, Kinmen, Magong, Teochew) who; whom

Etymology 4[edit]

trad.
simp.

Contraction of 是誰是谁 (chī-chūi).

Pronunciation[edit]


Definitions[edit]

  1. (Min Nan, chiefly Xiamen and Quanzhou) who; whom

Etymology 5[edit]

trad.
simp.
alt. forms (chiâ)
(chôa)

From shortening of 是誰是谁 (chī-choa̍h), from 是誰仔是谁仔 (chī-chūi-á).

Pronunciation[edit]

Definitions[edit]

  1. (Min Nan, including Zhangzhou and Taichung) who; whom

Synonyms[edit]

Dialectal synonyms of (“who; whom”) [map]
Variety Location Words
Classical Chinese 1誰人何人
Formal (Written Standard Chinese)
Mandarin Beijing 1
Taiwan 1
Harbin 1
Shenyang 1
Jinan 1
Muping 1
Luoyang 1
Jiedian 哪𠰻
Ronghe 啥外
Xi'an 1
Qingdao 1
Zhengzhou 1
Xining 阿個阿一個啥人
Xuzhou 1哪個
Yinchuan 1
Lanzhou 1誰個誰們
Ürümqi 1誰一個誰們
Wuhan 哪個啥個
Chengdu 哪個啥子人
Guiyang 哪個
Liuzhou 哪人哪個
Kunming 哪個
Yangzhou 哪個哪一個
Nanjing 哪個
Hefei 哪個哈個
Nantong 哪個哪一個哪個人
Cantonese Guangzhou 邊個乜誰
Hong Kong 邊個乜誰
Shunde 邊個
Foshan 邊個
Zhongshan 邊個
Dongguan 鼠個乜誰
Hong Kong (Weitou) 邊個哪誰
Taishan 阿誰
Doumen 邊個乜誰
Kaiping 乜誰乜阿誰
Shaoguan 邊個
Yunfu 邊個
Yangjiang 乜誰
Xinyi 乜人乜誰
Lianjiang 乜人
Nanning 邊個
Kuala Lumpur 邊個
Gan Nanchang 哪個
Lichuan 哪個
Pingxiang 哪仔哪個仔
Hakka Meixian 麼人哪儕
Xingning 哪隻
Huidong 哪隻哪人
Qujiang 哪個
Xiaosanjiang 哪儕
Changting 哪個哪個哩
Pingyu 麼人
Wuping 哪個麼人
Liancheng 哪個麼人
Ninghua 台人
Ruijin 哪人哪個
Shicheng 斯你
Shangyou 哪人
Miaoli (N. Sixian) 麼人麼儕
Liudui (S. Sixian) 麼人麼儕
Hsinchu (Hailu) 麼人麼儕
Dongshi (Dabu) 麼人麼儕
Zhuolan (Raoping) 麼人麼儕
Yunlin (Zhao'an) 麼儕
Hong Kong 哪人
Sabah 哪人
Senai 麼人
Singkawang 麼儕
Huizhou Jixi 哪個
Jin Taiyuan 1誰們 usually plural
Xinzhou 1誰們 usually plural
Min Bei Jian'ou 孰人
Min Dong Fuzhou 底儂
Fuqing 底儂
Matsu 底儂
Min Nan Xiamen 234是誰啥儂啥物儂什物儂底儂
Quanzhou 24是誰啥儂
Zhangzhou 5是誰啥儂
Taipei 啥物儂
Kaohsiung 啥物儂
Tainan 啥物儂
Taichung 5啥儂
Hsinchu 2啥物儂
Lukang 啥物儂2
Sanxia 啥儂
Yilan 啥儂2
Kinmen 3
Magong 3
Penang 誰誰誰誰儂是誰
Singapore 啥儂2是誰
Pingnan 乜儂
Chaozhou 底𫢗𫢗
Shantou 底𫢗
Haifeng 𫢗底𫢗
Johor Bahru 底𫢗
Haikou 3
Leizhou 3誰儂
Puxian Min Putian 什儂
Xianyou 什儂
Pinghua Nanning 哪個
Wu Shanghai 啥人
Suzhou 啥人
Hangzhou 哪個
Wenzhou 何乜人乜人誰人何人
Chongming 何人
Danyang 哪個
Jinhua 哪個
Ningbo 啥人誰儂 dated
Xiang Changsha 哪個何至個 suburbs
Shuangfeng 哪個
Loudi 哪個誰個
Quanzhou 哪個

See also[edit]

Question words


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

  1. interrogative personal pronoun: who

Readings[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
だれ
Grade: S
kun’yomi

/tare//dare/

From earlier tare[1][2][3] (see below). The dare form appears from around the Edo period.[2] The voicing of the initial /t-/ to /d-/ is likely by analogy with other interrogative demonstratives 何れ (dore, which one), 何処 (doko, where).

Now the primary form, replacing earlier tare.

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

(hiragana だれ, rōmaji dare)

  1. interrogative personal pronoun: who
Synonyms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
たれ
Grade: S
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese. Found in the Nihon shoki, completed in 720 CE.[1] Derived from older ta (see below) plus demonstrative nominalizer ending (re, thing). Compare the formation of これ (kore, this) from (ko) + (re),  (かれ) (kare, that one, that person) from  () (ka, that) + (re), etc.

Superseded by dare above starting from around the Edo period.[2] The tare form does not appear to be used anymore outside of poetry or intentionally archaic text.

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

(hiragana たれ, rōmaji tare)

  1. (archaic) interrogative personal pronoun: who
    • 16031604, Nippo Jisho (page 614)
      Tare. タレ (誰) 誰. 例, Tarega maittaca. l, tareca maitta. (誰が参つたか. まはは, 誰か参つた) 誰が来たか. Tare naritomo. (誰なりとも) 誰であろうとも.

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: S
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese. Found in the Kojiki, completed roughly 712 CE.[1] Appears to be the oldest form.

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

(hiragana , rōmaji ta)

  1. (obsolete, persists in some fossilized expressions) interrogative personal pronoun: who

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  3. 3.0 3.1 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13143-0

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(su) (hangeul , McCune-Reischauer su, Yale swu)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(thùy)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.