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See also:
U+8AB0, 誰
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-8AB0

[U+8AAF]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+8AB1]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order (Japan)
15 strokes

Han character[edit]

(radical 149, +8, 15 strokes, cangjie input 卜口人土 (YROG), four-corner 00614, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1165, character 11
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 35686
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1630, character 27
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 6, page 3987, character 10
  • Unihan data for U+8AB0

Chinese[edit]

Glyph origin[edit]

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *djul): semantic  (speak) + phonetic  (OC *tjul).

Etymology 1[edit]

trad.
simp.

From *du + *-i (suffix in independent pronouns); cognate with (OC *du, “who”), (OC *djɯwɢ, “which one; who”) (Schuessler, 2007). In other Sino-Tibetan languages, compare Mizo (who; which), Chepang दोह्‌ (what), Proto-Kuki-Chin *tuu (who; which (relativizer)) (Schuessler, 2007; STEDT).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • sûi - literary;
  • chûi - vernacular.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /ʂei³⁵/
    /ʂuei³⁵/
    Harbin /ʂei²⁴/
    /ʂuei²⁴/
    Tianjin /sei⁴⁵/
    /suei⁴⁵/
    Jinan /ʂuei⁴²/
    /ʂei⁴²/
    Qingdao /ʂe⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /ʂuei⁴²/
    /ʂei⁴²/
    Xi'an /sei²⁴/
    Xining /fɨ²⁴/
    Yinchuan /ʂuei⁵³/
    Lanzhou /fei⁵³/
    Ürümqi /sei⁵¹/
    Wuhan /suei²¹³/
    Chengdu /suei³¹/
    Guiyang /suei²¹/
    Kunming /suei³¹/
    Nanjing /ʂuəi²⁴/
    Hefei /ʂue⁵⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /sei¹¹/
    /suei¹¹/
    Pingyao /suei¹³/
    Hohhot /suei³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /zø²³/
    Suzhou /ze̞¹³/
    Hangzhou /d͡zz̩ʷei²¹³/
    Wenzhou /zz̩³¹/
    Hui Shexian /ɕye⁴⁴/
    Tunxi
    Xiang Changsha /ɕyei¹³/
    Xiangtan /ɕyəi¹²/
    Gan Nanchang
    Hakka Meixian /sui¹¹/
    Taoyuan
    Cantonese Guangzhou /søy²¹/
    Nanning /sui²¹/
    Hong Kong /søy²¹/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /sui³⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /suoi⁵³/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /sy³³/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /sui⁵⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /ʔdiaŋ³³/ 訓讀

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (25)
    Final () (16)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Closed
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /d͡ʑiuɪ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /d͡ʑʷi/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /d͡ʑjuɪ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /d͡ʑwi/
    Li
    Rong
    /ʑui/
    Wang
    Li
    /ʑwi/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ʑwi/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    chuí
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    shuí
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ dzywij ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[d]uj/
    English who

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 17725
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    2
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*djul/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. who; whom
    2. someone; anyone
    3. anyone; whoever
    4. A surname​.

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    trad.
    simp.
    alternative forms

    Contraction of 啥人 (siáⁿ-lâng).

    Pronunciation[edit]


    Definitions[edit]

    1. (Min Nan) who; whom

    Etymology 3[edit]

    trad.
    simp.
    alternative forms 𪝊
    𫢗 Teochew

    Contraction of 底人 (tī-lâng).

    Pronunciation[edit]


    Definitions[edit]

    1. (Hokkien, including Xiamen, Kinmen, Magong, Singapore; Teochew; Hainanese) who; whom

    Etymology 4[edit]

    trad.
    simp.

    Contraction of 是誰是谁 (chī-chūi).

    Pronunciation[edit]


    Definitions[edit]

    1. (Min Nan, chiefly Xiamen and Quanzhou) who; whom

    Etymology 5[edit]

    trad.
    simp.
    alternative forms (chiâ)
    (chôa)

    From shortening of 是誰是谁 (chī-choa̍h), from 是誰仔是谁仔 (chī-chūi-á).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Definitions[edit]

    1. (Min Nan, including Zhangzhou and Taichung) who; whom

    Synonyms[edit]

    See also[edit]

    Question words


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (common “Jōyō” kanji)

    1. interrogative personal pronoun: who

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    だれ
    Grade: S
    kun’yomi

    /tare//dare/

    From earlier tare.[1][2][3][4]

    The dare form appears from around the Edo period.[3] The voicing of the initial /t-/ to /d-/ is likely by analogy with other interrogative demonstratives 何れ (dore, which one), 何処 (doko, where).

    Now the primary form, replacing earlier tare.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Pronoun[edit]

    (だれ) (dare

    1. interrogative personal pronoun: who
      (だれ)(だれ)(つく)ったのか
      dare ga dare o tsukutta no ka
      Who made who?
    Derived terms[edit]
    Idioms[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    たれ
    Grade: S
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese, first attested in the Kojiki (712 CE) alongside its older form ta (see below).

    Derived from older (ta, who) + (re, thing, demonstrative nominalizer ending). Compare the formation of これ (kore, this) from (ko, this) + , (kare, that one, that person) from (ka, that) + (​re), etc.

    Superseded by dare above starting from around the Edo period.[2][3] The tare form does not appear to be used anymore outside of poetry or intentionally archaic text.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Pronoun[edit]

    (たれ) (tare

    1. (archaic) interrogative personal pronoun: who
      • 711712, Kojiki (poem 15)
        夜麻登能多加佐士怒袁那那由久袁登賣杼母(やまとのたかさじのをななゆくをとめども)多禮(たれ)袁志摩加牟(をしまかむ) [Man'yōgana]
        大和(やまと)(たか)佐士野(さじの)(なな)()媛女(をとめ)ども(たれ)をし()かむ [Modern spelling]
        Yamato no Takasajino o nana yuku otome-domo tare o shi makamu
        Of the seven maidens walking there in the field of Takasaji in Yamato, which will you choose to wed?[5]
      • c. late 9th–mid-10th century, Taketori Monogatari
        この女、「かくのたまふは誰(たれ)ぞ」と問ふ。
      • c. late 9th–mid-10th century, Taketori Monogatari
        大納言「悪しく探ればなき也」と腹立ちて、誰(たれ)ばかりおぼえんにとて、「吾上りて探らむ」とのたまふて[...]
      • 16031604, Nippo Jisho (page 614)[6]
        Tare. タレ () 誰. 例,Tarega maittaca. l, tareca maitta. (が参つたか. まはは, か参つた) 誰が来たか.Tare naritomo. (なりとも) 誰であろうとも.
    Derived terms[edit]
    Idioms[edit]
    Proverbs[edit]
    See also[edit]

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: S
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese, first attested in the Kojiki, completed roughly 712 CE.[1]

    Appears to be the oldest form.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Pronoun[edit]

    () (ta

    1. (obsolete, persists in some fossilized expressions) interrogative personal pronoun: who
      • 711712, Kojiki (poem 94)
        美母呂爾都久夜多麻加岐都岐阿麻斯(みもろにつくやたまかきつきあまし)()爾加母余良牟加微能美夜比登(にかもよらむかみのみやひと) [Man'yōgana]
        ()(もろ)()くや玉垣(たまかき)()(あま)()にかも()らむ(かみ)宮人(みやひと) [Modern spelling]
        mimoro ni tsuku ya tamakaki tsuki-amashi ta ni ka mo yoramu kami no miya-hito
        Round the sacred grove they've put a worship fence; too long she's worshipped―on whom now can she rely, the shrine maid of the god?[5]
    Derived terms[edit]
    See also[edit]

    See also[edit]

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 .1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. 2.0 2.1 1995, 大辞泉 (Daijisen) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN
    3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    4. 4.0 4.1 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    5. 5.0 5.1 Edwin A. Cranston (1998) The Gem-Glistening Cup, illustrated edition, Stanford University Press, →ISBN
    6. ^ Doi, Tadao (1603–1604) Hōyaku Nippo Jisho (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Iwanami Shoten, published 1980, →ISBN.

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (su) (hangeul )

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (thùy)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.