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See also:
U+8AF6, 諶
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-8AF6

[U+8AF5]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+8AF7]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 149, +9, 16 strokes, cangjie input 卜口廿一女 (YRTMV), four-corner 04611, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1171, character 15
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 35739
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1636, character 23
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 6, page 3994, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+8AF6

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
諶-bronze.svg 諶-seal.svg 諶-bigseal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*ʔl'uːm, *r'uːmʔ, *l'um
*ʔl'uːm
*l̥ʰuːmʔ, *l'uːmʔ
*sluːmʔ
*kʰluːm
*kʰluːm, *ʔl'umʔ
*kʰluːm, *ŋɡluːm, *ŋɡluːmʔ, *sɡruːmʔ, *kʰruːm
*kʰluːmʔ, *kʰluːb
*kʰluːms
*kʰuːms
*kʰuːms
*r'uːmʔ
*ʔl'um
*ʔl'um
*ʔl'ums
*l̥ʰumʔ
*l̥ʰumʔ
*kljum
*ɡljum
*ɡljum
*ɡljum
*ɡljum
*ɡljumʔ, *ɡljums
*ɦljumʔ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ɡljum): semantic  (speech) + phonetic  (OC *ɡljumʔ, *ɡljums).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note: Shèn - variant pronunciation for the surname (inferred using the youbian dubian method).

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (25)
Final () (139)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/d͡ʑiɪm/
Pan
Wuyun
/d͡ʑim/
Shao
Rongfen
/d͡ʑjem/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/d͡ʑim/
Li
Rong
/ʑiəm/
Wang
Li
/ʑĭĕm/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ʑi̯əm/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
chén
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
chén
Middle
Chinese
‹ dzyim ›
Old
Chinese
/*[t.ɢ][u]m/
English reliable, to trust

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 11292
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
3
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɡljum/

Definitions[edit]

  1. to believe
  2. devoted
  3. indeed
  4. A surname​.

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(uncommon “Hyōgai” kanji)

  1. sincere
  2. faithful

Readings[edit]

  • On (unclassified): しん (shin), じん (jin)
  • Kun: まこと (makoto)

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(sim) (hangeul , revised sim, McCune–Reischauer sim, Yale sim)

  1. truth
  2. to believe

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(kham, thầm, thòm, xầm)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.