蹴る

From Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Japanese

[edit]
Kanji in this term

Grade: S
kun'yomi

Etymology

[edit]

*/kuwu//kuweru//kʷeru//keru/

From Old Japanese verb 蹴う (kuu).

The conjugation shifted from 下二段活用 (shimo nidan katsuyō, bigrade conjugation) (/kuwe-/, /kuu/) to 下一段活用 (shimo ichidan katsuyō, monograde conjugation) (/kʷe-/, /kʷeru/) in Early Middle Japanese. This verb was the only shimo ichidan verb in Early Middle Japanese.[1]

Pronunciation of /kʷe/ changed to /ke/ before around 1300.[1]

The conjugation irregularly shifted from 下一段活用 (shimo ichidan katsuyō, monograde conjugation) (/ke-/, /keru/) to 四段活用 (yodan katsuyō, quadrigrade conjugation) (/ker-/, /keru/) after the early Edo period.[1]

Pronunciation

[edit]
  • Tokyo pitch accent of conjugated forms of "蹴る"
Source: Online Japanese Accent Dictionary
Stem forms
Terminal (終止形)
Attributive (連体形)
蹴る [kéꜜrù]
Imperative (命令形) 蹴れ [kéꜜrè]
Key constructions
Passive 蹴られる られ [kèráréꜜrù]
Causative 蹴らせる らせ [kèráséꜜrù]
Potential 蹴れる [kèréꜜrù]
Volitional 蹴ろう [kèróꜜò]
Negative 蹴らない ない [kèráꜜnàì]
Negative perfective 蹴らなかった なかった [kèráꜜnàkàttà]
Formal 蹴ります りま [kèrímáꜜsù]
Perfective 蹴った った [kéꜜttà]
Conjunctive 蹴って って [kéꜜttè]
Hypothetical conditional 蹴れば れば [kéꜜrèbà]

Verb

[edit]

() (kerutransitive godan (stem () (keri), past ()った (ketta))

  1. to kick (something)
    ボール()った
    Bōru o ketta.
    (He) kicked the ball.
  2. to leave a place, particularly in a wild, angry, or violent fashion: to storm out (in the form 蹴る (seki o keru, to kick one's seat))
    (かい)()(せき)()って部屋(へや)()
    Kaigi no seki o kette heya o deta.
    (He) stormed out of the conference room.
  3. to reject
    (もう)()()った
    Mōshide o ketta.
    (He) refused the proposal.

Conjugation

[edit]
  • Old Japanese:
  • Early Middle Japanese, early Late Middle Japanese (before around 1300):
  • Late Middle Japanese since around 1300:
  • Modern Japanese, classical conjugation:

Derived terms

[edit]

References

[edit]
  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 ”, in 日本国語大辞典 [Nihon Kokugo Daijiten]‎[1] (in Japanese), concise edition, Tokyo: Shogakukan, 2000
  2. ^ Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  3. ^ Kindaichi, Kyōsuke et al., editors (1997), 新明解国語辞典 [Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten] (in Japanese), Fifth edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  4. ^ NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute, editor (1998), NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 [NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary] (in Japanese), Tokyo: NHK Publishing, Inc., →ISBN