食物

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Chinese[edit]

 
eat; food; to feed; animal feed
thing; object; matter
simp. and trad.
(食物)

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • si̍t-bu̍t - literary;
  • chia̍h-mn̍gh/chia̍h-mi̍h - colloquial.

Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2 1/1
Initial () (27) (4)
Final () (134) (60)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open Closed
Division () III III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ʑɨk̚/ /mɨut̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/ʑɨk̚/ /miut̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/ʑiek̚/ /miuət̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ʑik̚/ /mut̚/
Li
Rong
/d͡ʑiək̚/ /miuət̚/
Wang
Li
/d͡ʑĭək̚/ /mĭuət̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/d͡ʑʰi̯ək̚/ /mi̯uət̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
shí
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
shí
Middle
Chinese
‹ zyik › ‹ mjut ›
Old
Chinese
/*mə-lək/ /*C.mut/
English eat thing

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2 1/1
No. 11477 13218
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0 1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɦljɯɡ/ /*mɯd/

Noun[edit]

食物

  1. food

Synonyms[edit]

Dialectal synonyms of 食物 (“food”) [map]
Variety Location Words
Classical Chinese 食物
Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 食物
Mandarin Beijing 食物
Taiwan 食物
Cantonese Guangzhou 食物
Hong Kong 嘢食食物
Hakka Meixian 食物
Miaoli (N. Sixian) 食物
Liudui (S. Sixian) 食物
Hsinchu (Hailu) 食物
Dongshi (Dabu) 食物
Zhuolan (Raoping) 食物
Yunlin (Zhao'an) 食物
Jin Taiyuan 食物
Min Dong Fuzhou 食其乇
Min Nan Xiamen 食物物食
Quanzhou 食物
Zhangzhou 食物物食
Taipei 食物物食

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic (食物):
  • Japanese: 食物 (しょくもつ) (shokumotsu)
  • Korean: 식물 (食物, singmul)

See also[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
しょく
Grade: 2
もつ
Grade: 3
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese 食物 (zyik mjut, literally eat + thing). Possible alteration from strict goon reading jikimotsu, changing goon jiki for kan'on shoku.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

食物 (hiragana しょくもつ, rōmaji shokumotsu)

  1. food, foodstuff
  2. (more broadly) food and drink
Synonyms[edit]
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
じき
Grade: 2
もつ
Grade: 3
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese 食物 (zyik mjut, literally eat + thing). Possible original reading.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

食物 (hiragana じきもつ, rōmaji jikimotsu)

  1. (rare) food, foodstuff
Usage notes[edit]

The shokumotsu reading is more common.

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
しょく
Grade: 2
ぶつ
Grade: 3
on’yomi

From Chinese 食物. Possible reborrowing, or change influenced by later contact with China after borrowing of earlier goon reading jikimotsu.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

食物 (hiragana しょくぶつ, rōmaji shokubutsu)

  1. (rare) food, foodstuff
Usage notes[edit]

The shokumotsu reading is more common. The shokubutsu reading is generally avoided, due to the potential for confusion with the more-common term 植物 (shokubutsu, plant, plant life).

Etymology 4[edit]

Kanji in this term
た(べ)
Grade: 2
もの
Grade: 3
kun’yomi

Compound of 食べ (tabe, stem noun form of verb 食べる (taberu, to eat): eating) +‎ (mono, thing).[4][1]

For disambiguation, this is more commonly written with the okurigana in the middle as 食べ物.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

食物 (hiragana たべもの, rōmaji tabemono)

  1. 食べ物: food in general; a specific food; one's diet
    See 食べ物 for more detail.

Etymology 5[edit]

Kanji in this term
く(い)
Grade: 2
もの
Grade: 3
kun’yomi

Compound of 食い (kui, stem noun form of informal verb 食う (kuu, to eat): eating) +‎ (mono, thing).[4][1]

For disambiguation, this is more commonly written with the okurigana in the middle as 食い物.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

食物 (hiragana くいもの, rōmaji kuimono, historical hiragana くひもの)

  1. 食い物: food; a sexual partner; a patsy, someone tricked into being used for someone else's gain
    See 食い物 for more detail.

Verb[edit]

食物する (hiragana くいもの, rōmaji kuimono, historical hiragana くひもの)

  1. 食い物: to cook, to prepare food
    See 食い物 for more detail.

Etymology 6[edit]

Kanji in this term
く(らい)
Grade: 2
もの
Grade: 3
kun’yomi

Compound of 食らい (kurai, stem noun form of informal verb 食らう (kurau, to eat, to drink): eating, drinking) +‎ (mono, thing).[4][1]

For disambiguation, this is more commonly written with the okurigana in the middle as 食らい物.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

食物 (hiragana くらいもの, rōmaji kuraimono, historical hiragana くらひもの)

  1. (rare, possibly obsolete) 食らい物: food and beverage

Etymology 7[edit]

Kanji in this term
は(み)
Grade: 2
もの
Grade: 3
kun’yomi

Compound of 食み (hami, stem noun form of verb 食む (hamu, to chew; to eat; to suck down; to incur a loss): eating) +‎ (mono, thing).[4][1]

For disambiguation, this is written with the okurigana in the middle as 食み物.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

食物 (hiragana はみもの, rōmaji hamimono)

  1. (rare, possibly obsolete) 食み物: food; more specifically, fodder or feed for animals
Synonyms[edit]

Etymology 8[edit]

Kanji in this term
お(し)
Grade: 2
もの
Grade: 3
kun’yomi

Compound of 食し (oshi, stem noun form of honorific verb 食す (osu, to eat, to drink, honorific): eating, drinking) +‎ (mono, thing).[4]

For disambiguation, this is written with the okurigana in the middle as 食し物.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

食物 (hiragana おしもの, rōmaji oshimono, historical hiragana をしもの)

  1. (rare, possibly obsolete, formal honorific) 食し物: (rare) food and beverage

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13143-0
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan