食物

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Chinese[edit]

 
eat; food; to feed; animal feed
thing; object; matter
simp. and trad.
(食物)

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • si̍t-bu̍t - literary;
  • chia̍h-mn̍gh/chia̍h-mi̍h - colloquial.
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2 1/1
    Initial () (27) (4)
    Final () (134) (60)
    Tone (調) Checked (Ø) Checked (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open Closed
    Division () III III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ʑɨk̚/ /mɨut̚/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ʑɨk̚/ /miut̚/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ʑiek̚/ /miuət̚/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ʑik̚/ /mut̚/
    Li
    Rong
    /d͡ʑiək̚/ /miuət̚/
    Wang
    Li
    /d͡ʑĭək̚/ /mĭuət̚/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /d͡ʑʰi̯ək̚/ /mi̯uət̚/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    shí
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    shí
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ zyik › ‹ mjut ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*mə-lək/ /*C.mut/
    English eat thing

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2 1/1
    No. 11477 13218
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0 1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ɦljɯɡ/ /*mɯd/

    Noun[edit]

    食物

    1. food

    Usage notes[edit]

    There is no exact equivalent for English food in Chinese. The most generic term for food is 食物 (shíwù). Use 食品 (shípǐn) for food products, 菜餚菜肴 (càiyáo) for dishes of food, 美食 (měishí) when the taste of the food is emphasised and 吃的 (chīde) in colloquial contexts. For food as in cuisine, consider (cài) or 料理 (liàolǐ).

    Synonyms[edit]

    Dialectal synonyms of 食物 (“food”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese 食物
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 食物
    Mandarin Beijing 食物
    Taiwan 食物
    Cantonese Guangzhou 食物
    Hong Kong 嘢食食物
    Hakka Meixian 食物
    Miaoli (N. Sixian) 食物
    Liudui (S. Sixian) 食物
    Hsinchu (Hailu) 食物
    Dongshi (Dabu) 食物
    Zhuolan (Raoping) 食物
    Yunlin (Zhao'an) 食物
    Jin Taiyuan 食物
    Min Dong Fuzhou 食其乇
    Min Nan Xiamen 食物物食
    Quanzhou 食物
    Zhangzhou 食物物食
    Taipei 食物物食

    Derived terms[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    Sino-Xenic (食物):
    • Japanese: 食物 (しょくもつ) (shokumotsu)
    • Korean: 식물 (食物, singmul)

    See also[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    しょく
    Grade: 2
    もつ
    Grade: 3
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese 食物 (zyik mjut, literally eat + thing). Possible alteration from strict goon reading jikimotsu, changing goon jiki for kan'on shoku.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    食物 (hiragana しょくもつ, rōmaji shokumotsu)

    1. food, foodstuff
    2. (more broadly) food and drink
    Synonyms[edit]
    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    じき
    Grade: 2
    もつ
    Grade: 3
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese 食物 (zyik mjut, literally eat + thing). Possible original reading.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    食物 (hiragana じきもつ, rōmaji jikimotsu)

    1. (rare) food, foodstuff
    Usage notes[edit]

    The shokumotsu reading is more common.

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    しょく
    Grade: 2
    ぶつ
    Grade: 3
    on’yomi

    From Chinese 食物. Possible reborrowing, or change influenced by later contact with China after borrowing of earlier goon reading jikimotsu.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    食物 (hiragana しょくぶつ, rōmaji shokubutsu)

    1. (rare) food, foodstuff
    Usage notes[edit]

    The shokumotsu reading is more common. The shokubutsu reading is generally avoided, due to the potential for confusion with the more-common term 植物 (shokubutsu, plant, plant life).

    Etymology 4[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    た(べ)
    Grade: 2
    もの
    Grade: 3
    kun’yomi

    Compound of 食べ (tabe, stem noun form of verb 食べる (taberu, to eat): eating) +‎ (mono, thing).[4][1]

    For disambiguation, this is more commonly written with the okurigana in the middle as 食べ物.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    食物 (hiragana たべもの, rōmaji tabemono)

    1. 食べ物: food in general; a specific food; one's diet
      See 食べ物 for more detail.

    Etymology 5[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    く(い)
    Grade: 2
    もの
    Grade: 3
    kun’yomi

    Compound of 食い (kui, stem noun form of informal verb 食う (kuu, to eat): eating) +‎ (mono, thing).[4][1]

    For disambiguation, this is more commonly written with the okurigana in the middle as 食い物.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    食物 (hiragana くいもの, rōmaji kuimono, historical hiragana くひもの)

    1. 食い物: food; a sexual partner; a patsy, someone tricked into being used for someone else's gain
      See 食い物 for more detail.

    Verb[edit]

    食物する (hiragana くいものする, rōmaji kuimono suru, historical hiragana くひものする)

    1. 食い物: to cook, to prepare food
      See 食い物 for more detail.

    Etymology 6[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    く(らい)
    Grade: 2
    もの
    Grade: 3
    kun’yomi

    Compound of 食らい (kurai, stem noun form of informal verb 食らう (kurau, to eat, to drink): eating, drinking) +‎ (mono, thing).[4][1]

    For disambiguation, this is more commonly written with the okurigana in the middle as 食らい物.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    食物 (hiragana くらいもの, rōmaji kuraimono, historical hiragana くらひもの)

    1. (rare, possibly obsolete) 食らい物: food and beverage

    Etymology 7[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    は(み)
    Grade: 2
    もの
    Grade: 3
    kun’yomi

    Compound of 食み (hami, stem noun form of verb 食む (hamu, to chew; to eat; to suck down; to incur a loss): eating) +‎ (mono, thing).[4][1]

    For disambiguation, this is written with the okurigana in the middle as 食み物.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    食物 (hiragana はみもの, rōmaji hamimono)

    1. (rare, possibly obsolete) 食み物: food; more specifically, fodder or feed for animals
    Synonyms[edit]

    Etymology 8[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    お(し)
    Grade: 2
    もの
    Grade: 3
    kun’yomi

    Compound of 食し (oshi, stem noun form of honorific verb 食す (osu, to eat, to drink, honorific): eating, drinking) +‎ (mono, thing).[4]

    For disambiguation, this is written with the okurigana in the middle as 食し物.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    食物 (hiragana おしもの, rōmaji oshimono, historical hiragana をしもの)

    1. (rare, possibly obsolete, formal honorific) 食し物: (rare) food and beverage

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
    3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan