|Unicode name||CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-99AC|
|Unicode block||CJK Unified Ideographs|
- 1 Translingual
- 2 Chinese
- 3 Japanese
- 4 Korean
- 5 Vietnamese
- KangXi radical 187 馬
- KangXi: page 1433, character 1
- Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 44572
- Dae Jaweon: page 1956, character 34
- Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 7, page 4539, character 1
- Unihan data for U+99AC
Pictogram (象形); derived from the pictogram of a horse with its head turned to look back and showing a flowing mane in the wind. The four short strokes at its base (灬) represent its feet, and the sweeping hook stroke in the lower right represents its tail.
|Historical forms of the character 馬|
|Oracle bone script||Bronze inscriptions||Large seal script||Small seal script|
|Clerical script||Semi-cursive script||Cursive script|
For the insect prefix sense, see 螞. It has converged with the sense of “big”.
- Cantonese (Jyutping): maa5
- Hakka (Pha̍k-fa-sṳ): mâ
- Min Dong (BUC): mā
- Min Nan
- Wu (Wiktionary): mo (T3); ma (T3)
- Min Dong
- Min Nan
|Middle Chinese pronunciation (馬, reconstructed)|
|Character (馬), Pronunciation 1/1|
|Expected Mandarin reflex: mǎ|
|Old Chinese pronunciation (馬, reconstructed)|
|Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)|
|Middle Chinese||Old Chinese||English|
|馬||mǎ||‹ mæX ›||/*mˤraʔ/||horse|
Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:
|Zhengzhang system (2003)|
- horse (Classifier: 匹; 隻／只)
- (chess) knight
- (Chinese chess) horse
- Original form of 碼／码 (mǎ, “chip for counting”).
- big (prefix for nouns)
- Prefix for names of insects, also written as 螞.
- Abbreviation of 馬祖／马祖 (Mǎzǔ).
- Abbreviation of 馬來西亞／马来西亚 (Mǎláixīyà).
- A surname.
|Japanese stroke order|
|Kanji in this term|
From Old Japanese. Recorded in the Nihon Shoki as having been brought over from the Korean peninsula kingdom of Baekje, with the earlier reading of ma. The initial m sound was apparently emphasized, possibly similar to *mma, becoming then uma or muma, via processes also seen in the word 梅 (ume, mume, “plum”).
The ma sound denoting "horse" is common to a number of languages of central Asia, where horses were first domesticated, suggesting a possible cognate root. Compare Manchu ᠮᠣᡵᡳᠨ (morin, “horse”), Mongol морь (morj, “horse”), Korean 말 (mal, “horse”), Mandarin 馬 (mă, “horse”), and Proto-Indo-European *márkos (“horse”) and descendants such as Irish marc (“horse”, archaic) or English mare (“female horse”). More at *márkos.
- a horse
- (shogi) a promoted bishop
- a sawhorse: a four-leg stand made of wood or iron for supporting other materials
|Kanji in this term|
Shift from uma form, becoming more common starting from the Heian Period. This change later reverted, and muma is now considered obsolete.
- (obsolete) a horse
- 1988, 国語大辞典（新装版） (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
- 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
- ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3
- Sound (hangeul): 마 (McCune-Reischauer: ma, Yale: ma)
- This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove
- 말 (mal) (mal)
- 兵馬 (binh mã)
- (dialectal) don't
- tomb, grave
- to open