- 1 Translingual
- 2 Chinese
- 3 Japanese
- 4 Korean
- 5 Vietnamese
Pictogram (象形); derived from the pictogram of a horse with its head turned to look back and showing a flowing mane in the wind. The four short strokes at its base (灬) represent its feet, and the sweeping hook stroke in the lower right represents its tail.
|Historical forms of the character 馬|
|Oracle bone script||Bronze inscriptions||Large seal script||Small seal script|
|Clerical script||Semi-cursive script||Cursive script|
- KangXi radical 187 馬
- KangXi: page 1433, character 1
- Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 44572
- Dae Jaweon: page 1956, character 34
- Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 7, page 4539, character 1
- Unihan data for U+99AC
- Cantonese (Jyutping): maa5
- Hakka (Pha̍k-fa-sṳ): mâ
- Min Nan (POJ): bé / má
- Wu (WT Romanisation): mo (T3); ma (T3)
- Min Nan
|Middle Chinese pronunciation (馬, reconstructed)|
|Character (馬), Pronunciation 1/1|
Initial: 明 (4)
|Old Chinese pronunciation (馬, reconstructed)|
|Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)|
|Middle Chinese||Old Chinese||English|
|馬||mǎ||‹ mæX ›||/*mˤraʔ/||horse|
Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:
|Zhengzhang system (2003)|
馬 (classifier 匹)
- A surname.
- big (by extension from the horse sense; compare English use of horse)
- Short for 馬祖.
- Short for 馬來西亞.
- "马" (in Mandarin/English), MDBG English to Chinese dictionary ( Based on CC-CEDICT ). URL accessed on 2014-02-17.
|Japanese stroke order|
|Kanji in this term|
From Old Japanese. Recorded in the Nihon Shoki as having been brought over from the Korean peninsula kingdom of Baekje, with the earlier reading of ma. The initial m sound was apparently emphasized, possibly similar to *mma, becoming then uma or muma, via processes also seen in the word 梅 (ume, mume, “plum”).
The ma sound denoting "horse" is common to a number of languages of central Asia, where horses were first domesticated, suggesting a possible cognate root. Compare Manchu ᠮᠣᡵᡳᠨ (morin, “horse”), Mongol морь (morj, “horse”), Korean 말 (mal, “horse”), Mandarin 馬 (mă, “horse”), and Proto-Indo-European *mark(')- (“horse”) and descendants such as Irish marc (“horse”, archaic) or English mare (“female horse”). More at *mark(')-.
- a horse
- (shogi) a promoted bishop
- a sawhorse: a four-leg stand made of wood or iron for supporting other materials
Shift from uma form, becoming more common starting from the Heian Period. This change later reverted, and muma is now considered obsolete.
- (obsolete) a horse
- 1988, 国語大辞典（新装版） (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
- 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
- ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3
- Sound (hangeul): 마 (McCune-Reischauer: ma, Yale: ma)
- This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove
- 말 (mal)
- 兵馬 (binh mã)
- (dialectal) don't
- tomb, grave
- to open