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Translingual[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Icelandic horse1.jpg

Pictogram (象形); derived from the pictogram of a horse with its head turned to look back and showing a flowing mane in the wind. The four short strokes at its base () represent its feet, and the sweeping hook stroke in the lower right represents its tail.

Compare also ‎(bird), whose current form is similar (graphically, for claws/legs).

Contrast with 鹿 ‎(deer), which saw a very different development, and 𢊁 ‎(bison) (as in ), which is a hybrid: it has the the legs of 馬 (灬) but the head of 鹿.

馬-oracle.svg 馬-bronze.svg 馬-bigseal.svg 馬-seal.svg
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Large seal script Small seal script
馬 馬 馬
Clerical script Semi-cursive script Cursive script

Han character[edit]

(radical 187 +0, 10 strokes, cangjie input 尸手尸火 (SQSF), four-corner 71327)

  1. KangXi radical 187

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1433, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 44572
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1956, character 34
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 7, page 4539, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+99AC

Chinese[edit]

-
trad.
simp.

Pronunciation[edit]


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (馬), Pronunciation 1/1

Initial: 明 (4)
Final: 麻
Division: II

Openness: Open
Tone: Rising (X)

Fanqie: 莫下切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/mɣaX/ /maX/ /maX/ /mɯaX/ /maɨX/ /maX/ /maX/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
‹ X › /*mˤraʔ/ horse

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
8715 0 /*mraːʔ/

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *k-m-raŋ ~ s-raŋ.

Noun[edit]

(classifier )

  1. horse

Proper noun[edit]

  1. A surname​.

Adjective[edit]

  1. big
    /   ―  sháo  ―  ladle (big spoon)

Etymology 2[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

  1. Short for 馬祖.

Etymology 3[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

  1. Short for 馬來西亞.

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]

  • "" (in Mandarin/English), MDBG English to Chinese dictionary ( Based on CC-CEDICT ). URL accessed on 2014-02-17.

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

Japanese stroke order
馬-jbw.png

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. horse

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia
(uma, muma): a pair of horses.
Kanji in this term
うま
Grade: 2
kun'yomi

From Old Japanese.[1] Recorded in the Nihon Shoki as having been brought over from the Korean peninsula kingdom of Baekje, with the earlier reading of ma. The initial m sound was apparently emphasized,[1][2] possibly similar to *mma, becoming then uma or muma, via processes also seen in the word ‎(ume, mume, plum).

The ma sound denoting "horse" is common to a number of languages of central Asia, where horses were first domesticated, suggesting a possible cognate root. Compare Manchu ᠮᠣᡵᡳᠨ ‎(morin, horse), Mongol морь ‎(morj, horse), Korean ‎(mal, horse), Mandarin ‎(, horse), and Proto-Indo-European *mark(')- ‎(horse) and descendants such as Irish marc ‎(horse, archaic) or English mare ‎(female horse). More at *mark(')-.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(counter , hiragana うま, romaji uma)

  1. a horse
  2. (shogi) a promoted bishop
  3. a sawhorse: a four-leg stand made of wood or iron for supporting other materials

Etymology 2[edit]

Shift from uma form, becoming more common starting from the Heian Period. This change later reverted, and muma is now considered obsolete.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana むま, romaji muma)

  1. (obsolete) a horse
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 20, poem #4372)
      阿志加良能 美佐可多麻波理 可閇理美須 阿例波久江由久 阿良志乎母 多志夜波婆可流 不破乃世伎 久江弖和波由久 牟麻能都米 都久志能佐伎尓 知麻利為弖 阿例波伊波々牟 母呂々々波 佐祁久等麻乎須 可閇利久麻弖尓
    • c. 935 Tosa Nikki
      ふぢはらのときざね、ふなぢなれど、むまのはなむけす。
    • c. 935 Tosa Nikki
      けふはあをむまをおもへど、かひなし。

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  3. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(ma)
Eumhun:

  • Sound (hangeul):  (McCune-Reischauer: ma, Yale: ma)
  • Name (hangeul): ,  (revised: mal, seong, McCune-Reischauer: mal, sŏng, Yale: mal, seng)
  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

Compounds[edit]

See also[edit]


Vietnamese[edit]

Character[edit]

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(ngựa)

  1. horse

Etymology 2[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(mứa)

  1. excess

Etymology 3[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(mựa)

  1. (dialectal) don't

Etymology 4[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(mả)

  1. tomb, grave
    • 1916: Nguyễn Đình Chiểu, Lục Vân Tiên, lines 921–922
      (tiểu)(đồng)(chẳng)(kịp)(hỏi)(han)/𦣰(nằm)(lăn)(bên)(mả)(khóc)(than)(bồi)(hồi)
      Before the page has a chance to pay a visit, / He throws himself down upon the grave, crying, lamenting, fretting.

Etymology 5[edit]

Verb[edit]

‎(mở)

  1. to open

References[edit]