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Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 187 +8, 18 strokes, cangjie input 尸火大一口 (SFKMR), four-corner 74321)

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1440, character 36
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 44817
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1964, character 31
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 7, page 4560, character 8
  • Unihan data for U+9A0E

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.

Glyph origin[edit]

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ɡral, *ɡrals): semantic  ‎(horse) + phonetic  ‎(OC *kral, *ɡral) – to ride horseback

Etymology[edit]

Wanderwort in the E/SE Asian Sprachbund. The STEDT reconstructs Proto-Sino-Tibetan *gi ‎(to ride; to sit astride; to sit (horse)), and comments that "many of the TB forms seem to be borrowings from Chinese ".

Outside Sino-Tibetan, cognates are also found in Hmong-Mien, Tai-Kadai and some Mon-Khmer languages. Benedict (1975) surmises that this is an ancient loan into Proto-Sino-Tibetan from Austro-Tai:

... but these [Tibeto-Burman] forms appear to involve old loans from AT [Austro-Tai] with typical loss of an original medial *w (Thai *khwi ~ *gwi).

while Peiros (1998), Sagart (2006), Schuessler (2007) and Pittayaporn (2014) think the directionality of borrowing is reversed. The following excerpt is taken from Sagart's review (2006) of Matisoff's book Handbook of Proto-Tibeto-Burman (2003):

The collection of forms under Matisoff's high-vowelled *gyi 'ride' are from TB languages in contact with Chinese (Lolo-Burmese, Qiangic, Tujia): they are best regarded as late loans from Chinese. ... The idea that the Chinese vocabulary of agriculture, metallurgy, horse-riding etc. might contain numerous loans from an early SEA language is simply not to be taken seriously in view of modern Asian archaeology (Bellwood 1997), quite apart from the fact that it makes no linguistic sense (Sagart 1999 for metal names). Yet Matisoff's book is scattered with observations telling the reader that words like 'writing brush' and 'ride' just discussed may well be loans from Austro-Tai into ST (188; 504).

Below lists some cognates for "to ride" found in various languages in this Sprachbund.

Also compare Proto-Austronesian *sakay ‎(catch a ride, join a group, ride on something).

Pronunciation 1[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (30)
Final () (13)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () Chongniu III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɡˠiᴇ/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɡᵚiɛ/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɡiɛ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/gjiə̆/
Li
Rong
/ɡje/
Wang
Li
/ɡǐe/
Bernard
Karlgren
/gie̯/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ gje ›
Old
Chinese
/*C.ɡ(r)aj/ (~ *[Cə.ɡ](r)aj)
English straddle; ride

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 9998
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɡral/

Definitions[edit]

  1. to ride (a horse, bike, etc.)
  2. to sit astride
  3. (vulgar) to ride; to mount (someone in sex)

Pronunciation 2[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (30)
Final () (13)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () Chongniu III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɡˠiᴇH/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɡᵚiɛH/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɡiɛH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/gjiə̆H/
Li
Rong
/ɡjeH/
Wang
Li
/ɡǐeH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/gie̯H/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ gjeH ›
Old
Chinese
/*[ɡ](r)aj-s/
English rider

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 10005
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɡrals/

Definitions[edit]

  1. horse or vehicle that one rides on
  2. mounted soldier
  3. (literary) Classifier for soldiers or warhorses.
  4. A surname​.

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

  1. ride horseback
  2. mount
  3. cavalry

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(gi) (hangeul , revised gi, McCune-Reischauer ki, Yale ki)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(kị, cưỡi, kỵ, cỡi, siệu)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.