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See also:
U+9EA5, 麥
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-9EA5

[U+9EA4]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+9EA6]
U+2FC6, ⿆
KANGXI RADICAL WHEAT

[U+2FC5]
Kangxi Radicals
[U+2FC7]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
麥-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 199, +0, 11 strokes, cangjie input 十人弓戈 (JONI), four-corner 40207, composition)

  1. Kangxi radical #199, .

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1512, character 8
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 47717
  • Dae Jaweon: page 2041, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 7, page 4600, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+9EA5

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp. *

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
麥-oracle.svg 麥-bronze.svg 麥-seal.svg 麥-bigseal.svg

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *mrɯːɡ): phonetic (OC *m·rɯːɡ) + semantic (foot; to walk slowly). was the original character for “wheat”. Several possible interpretations:

  • This character originally meant “to come”. Because the simpler was commonly used for this (borrowed) sense, its original meaning (“wheat”) switched with .
  • represents the ancient concept that wheat came from the heavens.
  • represents growth of the wheat plant.

Etymology[edit]

Etymologically unrelated to (OC *m·rɯːɡ, “to come”). Schuessler (2007) suggests it is from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *m‑rə(k) (buckwheat) and cognate with Tibetan བྲ་བོ (bra bo, buckwheat); also compare Proto-Lolo-Burmese *g-ra² (buckwheat). STEDT compares (OC *mrɯːɡ, “wheat”) to Proto-Tibeto-Burman *bra (buckwheat) (provisional).

Starostin (2009), on the other hand, compares (OC *mrɯːɡ, “wheat”) to Proto-Tungusic *murgi (barley), Middle Korean (milh, wheat), Old Japanese (mugi1, wheat; barley).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note: maak6 - variant.
Note:
  • măk - vernacular;
  • mĕk - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • be̍h/be̍eh - vernacular;
    • be̍k/bia̍k - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /mai⁵¹/
    Harbin /mai⁵³/
    Tianjin /mai⁵³/
    Jinan /mei²¹/
    Qingdao /me⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /mɛ²⁴/
    Xi'an /mei²¹/
    Xining /mɨ⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /mia¹³/
    /mɛ¹³/
    Lanzhou /mə¹³/
    Ürümqi /mai²¹³/
    /mei⁴⁴/
    Wuhan /mɤ²¹³/
    Chengdu /me³¹/
    Guiyang /mɛ²¹/
    Kunming /mə³¹/
    Nanjing /məʔ⁵/
    Hefei /mɐʔ⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /mai⁴⁵/
    Pingyao /miʌʔ⁵³/
    Hohhot /miaʔ⁴³/
    Wu Shanghai /maʔ¹/
    Suzhou /mɑʔ³/
    Hangzhou /mɑʔ²/
    Wenzhou /ma²¹³/
    Hui Shexian /mɛ²²/
    Tunxi /ma¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /mə²⁴/
    Xiangtan /mai²⁴/
    Gan Nanchang /mɑʔ²/
    Hakka Meixian /mak̚⁵/
    Taoyuan /mɑk̚⁵⁵/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /mɐk̚²/
    Nanning /mɐk̚²²/
    Hong Kong /mɐk̚²/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /bik̚⁵/
    /beʔ⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /maʔ⁵/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ma⁴²/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /beʔ⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /vɛ³³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (4)
    Final () (119)
    Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () II
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /mˠɛk̚/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /mᵚæk̚/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /mɐk̚/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /məɨjk̚/
    Li
    Rong
    /mɛk̚/
    Wang
    Li
    /mæk̚/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /mæk̚/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    mài
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ mɛk ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*m-rˁək/ (dialect: *m-rˁ > *mˁr-)
    English wheat

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 7630
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*mrɯːɡ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. wheat; barley; oats
    2. (Hainanese) corn; maize
    3. Short for 麥克風麦克风 (màikèfēng, “microphone”).
    4. Short for 麥克斯韋麦克斯韦 (Màikèsīwéi).
    5. A surname​.

    Synonyms[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: (ばく) (baku)
    • Korean: (, maek)
    • Vietnamese: mạch ()

    References[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Shinjitai

    Kyūjitai

    Kanji[edit]

    (uncommon “Hyōgai” kanjikyūjitai kanji, shinjitai form )

    1. wheat

    Readings[edit]

    • Go-on: みゃく (myaku)
    • Kan-on: ばく (baku)
    • Kun: むぎ (mugi, )

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun 보리 (bori maek))

    1. wheat

    Compounds[edit]


    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (mạch)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.