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U+9F3E, 鼾
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-9F3E

[U+9F3D]
CJK Unified Ideographs 鼿
[U+9F3F]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 209 +3, 17 strokes, cangjie input 竹中一十 (HLMJ), four-corner 21240, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1530, character 8
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 48505
  • Dae Jaweon: page 2066, character 24
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 7, page 4779, character 7
  • Unihan data for U+9F3E

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*krads, *krads, *ked, *kad
*kaːn
竿 *kaːn
*kaːn
*kaːn
*kaːn
*kaːn, *ɡaːn, *ɡaːns
*kaːn
*kaːn, *ɡaːns
*kaːn
*kaːn, *ɡaːn
*kaːnʔ
*kaːnʔ, *kaːns, *ɡaːns
*kaːnʔ
*kaːnʔ
*kaːnʔ
*kaːnʔ
*kaːnʔ
*kaːns
*kaːns
*kaːns
*kaːns
*kaːns, *ɡraːns
*kaːnʔ
*kaːnʔ
*kaːnʔ
*kʰaːn
*kʰaːn, *kʰaːns, *kreːn, *kan
*kʰaːnʔ, *kʰaːns
*ŋaːn, *ŋaːns
*ŋaːn, *ŋaːns, *ɦŋaːns, *ŋ̥ʰraːn
*ŋaːns, *hŋaːn, *ŋaːd
*ŋɡaːns
*qʰaːn, *ɢaːns
*qʰaːnʔ, *qʰaːns
*qʰaːnʔ, *ɡaːns
*qʰaːnʔ
*ɡaːn
*ɡaːnʔ
*ɡaːnʔ
*ɡaːns
*ɡaːns
*ɡaːns
*ɡaːns, *kʰraːn
*ɡaːns, *ɡraːnʔ
*ɡaːns
*ɡaːns
*ɡaːns
*ɡaːns
*ɡʷranʔ
*ɡraːns
*kan
*ɡan, *ɡʷad
*qʰan
*qʰan
*qʰaːŋʔ
*ɡʷaːnʔ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *qʰaːn, *ɢaːns): semantic  + phonetic  (OC *kaːn).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • hôaⁿ/hoaⁿ/kôⁿ - vernacular;
  • han - literary.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Initial () (32) (33)
Final () (61) (61)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open Open
Division () I I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/hɑn/ /ɦɑnH/
Pan
Wuyun
/hɑn/ /ɦɑnH/
Shao
Rongfen
/xɑn/ /ɣɑnH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/han/ /ɦanH/
Li
Rong
/xɑn/ /ɣɑnH/
Wang
Li
/xɑn/ /ɣɑnH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/xɑn/ /ɣɑnH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
hān hàn
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
No. 3606 3621
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1 1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*qʰaːn/ /*ɢaːns/
Notes

Definitions[edit]

  1. to snore (loudly)
  2. snore; snoring
      ―  hān  ―  to snore

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(uncommon “Hyōgai” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
かん
Hyōgaiji
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese (/hɑn/, snoring).

Only found in compounds. Not used in isolation.

Pronunciation[edit]

Affix[edit]

(hiragana かん, rōmaji kan)

  1. snoring
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
いびき
Hyōgaiji
kun’yomi

Originally a compound of (i, breath, breathing) +‎ 引き (hiki, pulling, drawing, the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of verb 引く hiku “to pull, to draw”).[1][2] The hiki changes to biki as an instance of rendaku (連濁).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana いびき, rōmaji ibiki)

  1. snoring, a snore
Derived terms[edit]

Verb[edit]

する (hiragana いびき, rōmaji ibiki)

  1. to snore
Conjugation[edit]
Synonyms[edit]
Usage notes[edit]

The verb sense “to snore” is more commonly expressed using the verbal phrases 掻く (ibiki o kaku, literally to make a snoring sound) or 立てる (ibiki o tateru, literally to raise a snore, to put up a snore).

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
くつち
Hyōgaiji
kun’yomi

Apparently the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of obsolete verb 鼾つ (kutsutsu, to sleep while snoring, possibly onomatopoeic).[1]

The epilepsy sense may have arisen from how one's breathing may be spastic and vaguely similar to snoring when suffering an epileptic seizure.

However, the conjugation of this putative verb is unknown, and it is only encountered in what would be the nominalized 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of kutsuchi.[1] This leaves open the possibility of alternative origins:

  • May be a compound of (kutsu, mouth, the bound form of modern (kuchi), only found in compounds) +‎ (chi, wind, from the way that snoring often happens when breathing through the mouth, or from the way that an epileptic seizure may involve spastic breathing vaguely similar to snoring).
  • The epilepsy sense may be a compound of (kutsu, mouth, the bound form of modern (kuchi), only found in compounds) +‎ (chi, blood, from the common occurrence of biting one's tongue during an epileptic seizure).

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana くつち, rōmaji kutsuchi)

  1. (archaic, rare) snoring
  2. (archaic, rare) epilepsy
Derived terms[edit]
Synonyms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(han) (hangeul , McCune-Reischauer han, Yale han)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(han)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.