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U+9F3E, 鼾
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-9F3E

[U+9F3D]
CJK Unified Ideographs 鼿
[U+9F3F]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 209, +3, 17 strokes, cangjie input 竹中一十 (HLMJ), four-corner 21240, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1530, character 8
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 48505
  • Dae Jaweon: page 2066, character 24
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 7, page 4779, character 7
  • Unihan data for U+9F3E

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*krads, *krads, *ked, *kad
*kaːn
竿 *kaːn
*kaːn
*kaːn
*kaːn
*kaːn, *ɡaːn, *ɡaːns
*kaːn
*kaːn, *ɡaːns
*kaːn
*kaːn, *ɡaːn
*kaːnʔ
*kaːnʔ, *kaːns, *ɡaːns
*kaːnʔ
*kaːnʔ
*kaːnʔ
*kaːnʔ
*kaːnʔ
*kaːns
*kaːns
*kaːns
*kaːns
*kaːns, *ɡraːns
*kaːnʔ
*kaːnʔ
*kaːnʔ
*kʰaːn
*kʰaːn, *kʰaːns, *kreːn, *kan
*kʰaːnʔ, *kʰaːns
*ŋaːn, *ŋaːns
*ŋaːn, *ŋaːns, *ɦŋaːns, *ŋ̊ʰraːn
*ŋaːns, *hŋaːn, *ŋaːd
*ŋɡaːns
*qʰaːn, *ɢaːns
*qʰaːnʔ, *qʰaːns
*qʰaːnʔ, *ɡaːns
*qʰaːnʔ
*ɡaːn
*ɡaːnʔ
*ɡaːnʔ
*ɡaːns
*ɡaːns
*ɡaːns
*ɡaːns, *kʰraːn
*ɡaːns, *ɡraːnʔ
*ɡaːns
*ɡaːns
*ɡaːns
*ɡaːns
*ɡʷranʔ
*ɡraːns
*kan
*ɡan, *ɡʷad
*qʰan
*qʰan
*qʰaːŋʔ
*ɡʷaːnʔ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *qʰaːn, *ɢaːns): semantic  + phonetic  (OC *kaːn).

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *hal (to snore). Compare Tibetan ཧལ (hal, to pant; to wheeze; to snort; to snore).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • hôaⁿ/hoaⁿ - vernacular;
  • hôⁿ/kôⁿ - also written as ;
  • han - literary.
Note:
  • huan5 - vernacular;
  • hang1 - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    Initial () (32) (33)
    Final () (61) (61)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open Open
    Division () I I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /hɑn/ /ɦɑnH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /hɑn/ /ɦɑnH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /xɑn/ /ɣɑnH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /han/ /ɦanH/
    Li
    Rong
    /xɑn/ /ɣɑnH/
    Wang
    Li
    /xɑn/ /ɣɑnH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /xɑn/ /ɣɑnH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    hān hàn
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    No. 3606 3621
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1 1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*qʰaːn/ /*ɢaːns/
    Notes

    Definitions[edit]

    1. (literary or Min Nan) to snore
    2. snore; snoring
        ―  hān  ―  to snore

    Synonyms[edit]

    Dialectal synonyms of 打鼾 (“to snore”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 打鼾
    Mandarin Beijing 打呼嚕打呼
    Taiwan 打鼾打呼嚕打呼
    Harbin 打呼嚕兒
    Hailar 打呼嚕
    Ulan Hot 打呼嚕
    Tongliao 打呼嚕
    Chifeng 打鼾
    Bayanhot 扯呼打呼嚕
    Jinan 打呼嚕
    Muping 打呼嚕打呼
    Luoyang 扯呼嚕扯黑嘍
    Jiedian 打鼾睡
    Xi'an 打鼾睡拉鼾睡打呼嚕
    Qingdao 打呼嚕
    Zhengzhou 打呼嚕
    Xining 打呼嚕打呼
    Xuzhou 打呼嚕打呼兒
    Yinchuan 扯呼
    Lanzhou 拉呼扯呼
    Ürümqi 扯呼打呼兒
    Wuhan 打鼾打呼
    Chengdu 扯撲鼾打撲鼾
    Guiyang 扯撲鼾打撲鼾
    Guilin 打呼
    Liuzhou 扯呼扯鼾打鼾打呼嚕
    Kunming 打鼾
    Yangzhou 打呼
    Nanjing 打呼
    Hefei 打呼
    Nantong 打呼
    Cantonese Guangzhou 打鼻鼾扯鼻鼾
    Hong Kong 打鼻鼾扯鼻鼾
    Shunde 打鼻鼾
    Foshan 打鼻鼾
    Zhongshan 打鼻鼾
    Dongguan 打鼻鼾
    Hong Kong (Weitou) 扯鼻鼾
    Taishan 鼻龍徑響
    Doumen 打鼻梁
    Kaiping 鼻囊徑響
    Shaoguan 打鼻鼾
    Yunfu 扯鼻鼾
    Yangjiang 鼻囊響
    Xinyi 打鼻鼾
    Lianjiang 打鼻鼾
    Nanning 扯鼻鼾打鼻鼾
    Wuzhou 扯鼻鼾
    Kuala Lumpur 扯鼻鼾
    Gan Nanchang 打鼾
    Lichuan 打鼾睡
    Pingxiang 扯鼾睡
    Hakka Meixian 打噴睡噴睡
    Luchuan 打呼嚕
    Changting 打鼾
    Shicheng 孔鼻
    Shangyou 打鼾屁
    Miaoli (N. Sixian) 牽覺噴睡
    Liudui (S. Sixian) 燉飯干牽覺
    Hsinchu (Hailu) 牽覺
    Dongshi (Dabu) 吹包打呵牽覺
    Zhuolan (Raoping) 牽覺
    Yunlin (Zhao'an) 牽大念
    Hong Kong 扯鼻鼾
    Senai 打鼻鼾
    Huizhou Jixi 打呼
    Jin Taiyuan 打鼾睡打呼嚕
    Xinzhou 打鼾睡
    Baochang 打鼾
    Jining 打鼾水
    Hohhot 打鼾睡打呼嚕
    Baotou 打鼾水
    Dongsheng 打鼾
    Linhe 打鼾睡
    Haibowan 打呼嚕
    Min Bei Jian'ou 𢫦呼嚕𢫦鼾
    Min Dong Fuzhou 拍鼾
    Min Nan Xiamen 起鼾
    Quanzhou 起鼾
    Zhangzhou 鼾眠起鼾
    Taipei
    Kaohsiung
    Tainan
    Taichung 吹包仔
    Wuqi
    Hsinchu
    Taitung
    Lukang
    Sanxia
    Yilan
    Magong
    Pingnan 扯風箱
    Chaozhou
    Shantou
    Johor Bahru 拍呼
    Haikou
    Pinghua Nanning 喉嚨響
    Guilin 打呼
    Wu Shanghai 打昏塗
    Suzhou 打昏
    Wuxi 打呼嚕欠昏
    Hangzhou 打迷鼾
    Wenzhou 鼾起睏鼾起
    Chongming 打昏塗
    Danyang 打呼
    Jinhua 打鼾
    Ningbo 打眠鼾
    Xiang Changsha 打鼾
    Quanzhou 打呼嚕

    Compounds[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (uncommon “Hyōgai” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    かん
    Hyōgaiji
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (MC hɑn, ɦɑnH, “snoring”).

    Only found in compounds. Not used in isolation.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Affix[edit]

    (hiragana かん, rōmaji kan)

    1. snoring
    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    いびき
    Hyōgaiji
    kun’yomi

    Originally a compound of (i, breath, breathing) +‎ 引き (hiki, pulling, drawing, the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of verb 引く hiku “to pull, to draw”).[1][2] The hiki changes to biki as an instance of rendaku (連濁).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana いびき, rōmaji ibiki)

    1. snoring, a snore
    Derived terms[edit]

    Verb[edit]

    する (hiragana いびきする, rōmaji ibiki suru)

    1. to snore
    Conjugation[edit]
    Synonyms[edit]
    Usage notes[edit]

    The verb sense “to snore” is more commonly expressed using the verbal phrases 掻く (ibiki o kaku, literally to make a snoring sound) or 立てる (ibiki o tateru, literally to raise a snore, to put up a snore).

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    くつち
    Hyōgaiji
    kun’yomi

    Apparently the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of obsolete verb 鼾つ (kutsutsu, to sleep while snoring, possibly onomatopoeic).[1]

    The epilepsy sense may have arisen from how one's breathing may be spastic and vaguely similar to snoring when suffering an epileptic seizure.

    However, the conjugation of this putative verb is unknown, and it is only encountered in what would be the nominalized 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of kutsuchi.[1] This leaves open the possibility of alternative origins:

    • May be a compound of (kutsu, mouth, the bound form of modern (kuchi), only found in compounds) +‎ (chi, wind, from the way that snoring often happens when breathing through the mouth, or from the way that an epileptic seizure may involve spastic breathing vaguely similar to snoring).
    • The epilepsy sense may be a compound of (kutsu, mouth, the bound form of modern (kuchi), only found in compounds) +‎ (chi, blood, from the common occurrence of biting one's tongue during an epileptic seizure).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana くつち, rōmaji kutsuchi)

    1. (archaic, rare) snoring
    2. (archaic, rare) epilepsy
    Derived terms[edit]
    Synonyms[edit]

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. 2.0 2.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (han) (hangeul , McCune–Reischauer han, Yale han)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (han)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.