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U+9F3E, 鼾
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-9F3E

[U+9F3D]
CJK Unified Ideographs 鼿
[U+9F3F]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 209, +3, 17 strokes, cangjie input 竹中一十 (HLMJ), four-corner 21240, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1530, character 8
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 48505
  • Dae Jaweon: page 2066, character 24
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 7, page 4779, character 7
  • Unihan data for U+9F3E

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms ⿰𢍂干 (second-round simplified)

Glyph origin[edit]

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *qʰaːn, *ɢaːns): semantic  + phonetic  (OC *kaːn).

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *hal (to snore). Compare Tibetan ཧལ (hal, to pant; to wheeze; to snort; to snore).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • hôaⁿ/hoaⁿ - vernacular;
  • hôⁿ/kôⁿ - also written as ;
  • han - literary.
Note:
  • huan5 - vernacular;
  • hang1 - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    Initial () (32) (33)
    Final () (61) (61)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open Open
    Division () I I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /hɑn/ /ɦɑnH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /hɑn/ /ɦɑnH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /xɑn/ /ɣɑnH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /han/ /ɦanH/
    Li
    Rong
    /xɑn/ /ɣɑnH/
    Wang
    Li
    /xɑn/ /ɣɑnH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /xɑn/ /ɣɑnH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    hān hàn
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    No. 3606 3621
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1 1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*qʰaːn/ /*ɢaːns/
    Notes

    Definitions[edit]

    1. (literary or Min Nan) to snore
    2. snore; snoring
        ―  hān  ―  to snore

    Synonyms[edit]

    Compounds[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (uncommon “Hyōgai” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    かん
    Hyōgaiji
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (MC hɑn, ɦɑnH, “snoring”).

    Only found in compounds. Not used in isolation.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Affix[edit]

    (かん) (kan

    1. snoring
    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    いびき
    Hyōgaiji
    kun’yomi

    Originally a compound of (i, breath, breathing) +‎ 引き (hiki, pulling, drawing, the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of verb 引く hiku “to pull, to draw”).[1][2] The hiki changes to biki as an instance of rendaku (連濁).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (いびき) (ibiki

    1. snoring, a snore
    Derived terms[edit]

    Verb[edit]

    (いびき)する (ibiki surusuru (stem (いびき) (ibiki shi), past (いびき)した (ibiki shita))

    1. to snore
    Conjugation[edit]
    Synonyms[edit]
    Usage notes[edit]

    The verb sense “to snore” is more commonly expressed using the verbal phrases 掻く (ibiki o kaku, literally to make a snoring sound) or 立てる (ibiki o tateru, literally to raise a snore, to put up a snore).

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    くつち
    Hyōgaiji
    kun’yomi

    Apparently the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of obsolete verb 鼾つ (kutsutsu, to sleep while snoring, possibly onomatopoeic).[1]

    The epilepsy sense may have arisen from how one's breathing may be spastic and vaguely similar to snoring when suffering an epileptic seizure.

    However, the conjugation of this putative verb is unknown, and it is only encountered in what would be the nominalized 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of kutsuchi.[1] This leaves open the possibility of alternative origins:

    • May be a compound of (kutsu, mouth, the bound form of modern (kuchi), only found in compounds) +‎ (chi, wind, from the way that snoring often happens when breathing through the mouth, or from the way that an epileptic seizure may involve spastic breathing vaguely similar to snoring).
    • The epilepsy sense may be a compound of (kutsu, mouth, the bound form of modern (kuchi), only found in compounds) +‎ (chi, blood, from the common occurrence of biting one's tongue during an epileptic seizure).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (くつち) (kutsuchi

    1. (archaic, rare) snoring
    2. (archaic, rare) epilepsy
    Derived terms[edit]
    Synonyms[edit]

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. 2.0 2.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (han) (hangeul , McCune–Reischauer han, Yale han)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (han)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.