ꜥnḫ

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Egyptian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

For the verb:

 
  • (reconstructed) IPA(key): /ˈʕaːnaχ//ˈʕaːnaχ//ˈʕaːnəχ//ˈʕoːnəχ/

For the noun ‘oath’:

 

Verb[edit]

anxn
x

 3-lit.

  1. (intransitive) to live, to be(come) alive
    • c. 2000 BCE – 1900 BCE, Tale of the Shipwrecked Sailor (pHermitage/pPetersburg 1115) lines 113–114:
      ma
      k
      nTrZ1r
      a
      n
      f
      anxn
      x
      kinin
      f
      twriw
      N23 Z1
      p
      n
      n
      kA Z1
      m.k nṯr rḏj.n.f ꜥnḫ.k jn.f tw r jw pn n(j) kꜣ
      Look, the god, he has let you live, as he has brought you to this island of the ka.
    1. (+ m) to subsist or live on (something)
    2. (+ m) to dwell in (some place)
    3. (+ ḥr) to occupy (a throne) or dwell in (a foreign land)
  2. (intransitive, of the dead) to come to life or live again after death in an afterlife
  3. (intransitive, figuratively) to ‘come to life’ (wake up or regain liveliness) upon the rising of the sun or upon seeing the sun
  4. (intransitive, figuratively) to ‘come to life’ whenever one’s name is pronounced
  5. (intransitive, of a name) to still be remembered
  6. (intransitive, especially of body parts) to be vigorous or full of vitality
  7. (intransitive, medicine, of food) to be fresh
  8. (intransitive, as a non-attributive relative/emphatic form) used in introductory formulae for oaths, usually with a king or god as subject: As long as … lives, … [since the Old Kingdom]
  9. used at the beginning of inscriptions before the names of kings and gods: originally ‘May … live’, later meaningless [meaningless since the 18th Dynasty]

Alternative forms[edit]

Inflection[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

  • Demotic: ꜥnḫ

Noun[edit]

anxn
x

 m

  1. life (the state of being alive)

Inflection[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Noun[edit]

anxn
x
A1

 m

  1. someone who lives, a living person or dweller
    • c. 13th Dynasty, Naos of Hori, Kunsthistorisches Museum 186, Vienna:
      iA2anxwZ3tp
      Z1
      N17
      N21 Z1
      HXrbW3A1Z3nbwabA1nb
      j ꜥnḫw tp(j)w tꜣ ẖrw-ḥbt nb wꜥbw nb […]
      O living ones upon the earth, all lector-priests, all temple-cleaners […]

Alternative forms[edit]

Inflection[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Noun[edit]

anx

 m

  1. The meaning of this term is uncertain. It is a piece of equipment illustrated among coffin offerings, at the foot end of the mummy, and depicted in the hieroglyph used to write its name. Possibilities include:
    1. A sandal strap
    2. An elaborate amuletic bow or knot
    3. A sort of tied belt
  2. ankh (symbol of life)

Inflection[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Noun[edit]

anxn
x
A2

 m

  1. (usually with pꜣ in Late Egyptian) oath, vow [since the Middle Kingdom]

Alternative forms[edit]

Inflection[edit]

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Descendants[edit]

Verb[edit]

anxn
x
A2

 3-lit.

  1. (intransitive) to swear (an oath); (with m) to swear by (someone) [18th Dynasty]

Inflection[edit]

Noun[edit]

anxn
x
A13

 m

  1. prisoner of war [18th Dynasty]

Inflection[edit]

Noun[edit]

anxM2
Z2

 m

  1. bouquet or garland of flowers, typically as an offering [since the 18th Dynasty]

Alternative forms[edit]

Inflection[edit]

Noun[edit]

anxn
x
L1

 m

  1. a kind of beetle [Pyramid Texts]
  2. an epithet of the sun [Greco-Roman Period]

Alternative forms[edit]

Inflection[edit]

Noun[edit]

anxN35A

 m

  1. an epithet of the inundation [Greco-Roman Period]

Inflection[edit]

Noun[edit]

anxn
x
O39
Z2

 m

  1. The meaning of this term is uncertain. Possibilities include: [Middle Kingdom]
    1. alabaster
    2. something made from alabaster

Inflection[edit]

Noun[edit]

anxZ1N34

 m

  1. mirror [since the Middle Kingdom]
    • c. 1295 BCE – 1186 BCE, The Admonitions of Ipuwer (pLeiden I 344 Recto) line 8.5:[2]
      m&a t
      n
      Z2
      D35
      t t
      nDsmrdsH_SPACE
      W
      xtsmnb
      t
      At
      p
      A9xt
      gmmHt
      D6
      HrZ1smmwmnb
      t
      anxZ1N34
      m.tn jwtt {m} pdsw.s m nbt ꜣtp gmḥt ḥr.s m mw m nbt ꜥnḫ
      Look, she who had no box is the owner of a chest; she who observed her face in the water is the owner of a mirror.

Alternative forms[edit]

Inflection[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Noun[edit]

anx
S134

 m

  1. a vessel in the form of an ankh, from which the gods pour life

Inflection[edit]

Noun[edit]

O31z
anx
O31x

 m

  1. a door leaf [Greco-Roman Period]

Inflection[edit]

Noun[edit]

anxV12
Z1

 m

  1. a kind of document [20th Dynasty]

Inflection[edit]

Noun[edit]

anxZ1
X4

 m

  1. sustenance, livelihood [since the 18th Dynasty]

Alternative forms[edit]

Inflection[edit]

Noun[edit]

anxF27
Z2

 m

  1. billy-goat? [19th Dynasty]

Inflection[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • Faulkner, Raymond, A Concise Dictionary of Middle Egyptian, Oxford: Griffith Institute, 1962, →ISBN
  • Erman, Adolf; Grapow, Hermann, Wörterbuch der ägyptischen Sprache, volume 1, Berlin: Akademie-Verlag, 1926, →ISBN, page 193.2–201.4, 202.3–203.5, 204.2–204.5, 204.7–204.17, 205.8, 205.13–205.14
  • “Protodialect”, in Atiya, Aziz Suryal, editor, The Coptic Encyclopedia[1], New York: Macmillan, 1991, →ISBN
  • James P[eter] Allen, Middle Egyptian: An Introduction to the Language and Culture of Hieroglyphs, 2nd edition, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010, →ISBN, page 386.
  1. ^ Loprieno, Antonio, Ancient Egyptian: A Linguistic Introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995, →ISBN, page 58
  2. ^ Gardiner, Alan (1909) The Admonitions of an Egyptian Sage from a Hieratic Papyrus in Leiden (Pap. Leiden 344 Recto), page 62 and plate 8