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U+AC00, 가
HANGUL SYLLABLE GA
Composition: +
Dubeolsik input:r-k
[unassigned: U+ABFA–U+ABFF]

[U+ABF9]
Hangul Syllables
[U+AC01]

Korean[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]





→ 개

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (file)
  • IPA(key)[ka̠]
  • Phonetic Hangul[]
Revised Romanization? ga
Revised Romanization (translit.)? ga
McCune–Reischauer? ka
Yale Romanization? ka

Symbol[edit]

(ga)

  1. A Hangul syllabic block made up of and . The first syllable of the hangul writing system. Often used to mark the first item of a list or sub-list.

Etymology 2[edit]

First attested in the Yongbi eocheonga (龍飛御天歌 / 용비어천가), 1447, as Middle Korean ᄀᆞᆺ (Yale: kos).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key)[ka̠ː]
  • Phonetic Hangul[]
Revised Romanization? ga
Revised Romanization (translit.)? ga
McCune–Reischauer? ka
Yale Romanization?

Noun[edit]

(ga)

  1. (often as a suffix) bound, edge, end, margin, rim, side, verge, brink
Synonyms[edit]
Antonyms[edit]
Derived terms[edit]
Related terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Unknown. It was not attested in texts from the 15th century, and its first attestation has been variously placed at 1572 CE[1] or mid-17th century[2]. It was initially a subject particle, of limited distribution and used in a complementary manner to (i). The development of its usage is as follows:[3]

  1. Since the mid-17th century: used after nouns ending in -i or -y,
    e.g. pwuli-ka ("mouth"), nay-ka ("scent"), poy-ka ("boat");
  2. Since the mid-18th century: used after nouns ending in vowels/semivowels other than -i,
    e.g. ca-ka ("one who"), soyngswo-ka, nwongso-ka ("farm work");
  3. During the end of the 18th century: used briefly in the form of double particle -i/yka after nouns ending in vowels/semivowels other than -i,
    e.g. to-yka ("road"), inkwu-yka ("population"), nwongso-yka ("farm work").

Various theories exist regarding its origin:

  1. Developed from the interrogative particle (ga);[4]
  2. Developed from the vocative case particle (ha)/ (a);[5]
  3. Developed from the connective ending 다가 (daga);[6]
  4. Developed from the verb 가— (ga-, “to go”);[7]
  5. Borrowed from the Japanese nominative particle (ga).[8]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key)[ka̠]
  • Phonetic Hangul[]
Revised Romanization? ga
Revised Romanization (translit.)? ga
McCune–Reischauer? ka
Yale Romanization? ka

Particle[edit]

(ga)

  1. Indicates the subject of a sentence.(Compare with Japanese )
    그렇지만, 내 펜을 갖고 있을텐데… 
    geureochiman, naega peneul gatgo isseultende…
    I know I have a pen, though…
    Original English texts from 2016, VOA Learning English (public domain)
  2. Indicates the subjective complement of a sentence, usually used with 되다 (doeda, become) or 아니다 (anida, be not).
Usage notes[edit]
  • (ga) indicates the subject of the verb in the sentence, as opposed to the object, which * (reul) indicates. See also (neun), which indicates the topic of the sentence.
  • (ga) is used only after words ending with a vowel. After words ending with a consonant, (i) is used instead.
Synonyms[edit]
See also[edit]

Etymology 4[edit]

Korean reading of various Chinese characters.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key)[ka̠]
  • Phonetic Hangul[]
Revised Romanization? ga
Revised Romanization (translit.)? ga
McCune–Reischauer? ka
Yale Romanization? ka
  • IPA(key)[ka̠ː]
  • Phonetic Hangul[]
Revised Romanization? ga
Revised Romanization (translit.)? ga
McCune–Reischauer? ka
Yale Romanization?

Noun[edit]

(ga)

  1. (): family, house
  2. (): price, value
  3. (): falsehood

Suffix[edit]

—가 (-ga)

  1. (): street
    • 종로3
      Jongno 3(sam)-ga
      "The 3rd Jongno Street"

Syllable[edit]

(ga)

  1. : lie
    (eumhun reading: 거짓 (geojit ga))
    (MC reading: )
  2. : temple
    (eumhun reading: (jeol ga))
    (MC reading: (MC ɡɨɑ))
  3. : beautiful
    (eumhun reading: 아름다울 (areumdaul ga))
    (MC reading: (MC kˠɛ))
  4. : lie
    (eumhun reading: 거짓 (geojit ga))
    (MC reading: (MC kˠaX, kˠaH))
  5. : furniture
    (eumhun reading: 가구 (gagu ga))
    (MC reading: )
  6. : price
    (eumhun reading: (gap ga))
    (MC reading: (MC kˠaH))
  7. : to add
    (eumhun reading: 더할 (deohal ga))
    (MC reading: (MC kˠa))
  8. : right;able
    (eumhun reading: 옳을 (oreul ga))
    (MC reading: (MC kʰɑX))
  9. : to scold
    (eumhun reading: 꾸짖을 (kkujijeul ga))
    (MC reading: (MC hɑ, hɑH))
  10. : coffee
    (eumhun reading: 커피 (keopi ga))
    (MC reading: )
  11. : a surname
    (eumhun reading: 성씨 (seongssi ga))
    (MC reading: (MC))
  12. : right, good
    (eumhun reading: 옳을 (oreul ga))
    (MC reading: (MCX))
  13. : beautiful, joyous;happy
    (eumhun reading: 아름다울 (areumdaul ga))
    (MC reading: (MC kˠa))
  14. : uneven;unlevel
    (eumhun reading: 평탄하지 않을 (pyeongtanhaji aneul ga))
    (MC reading: (MC kʰɑX, kʰɑH))
  15. : get married(Used only for women)
    (eumhun reading: 시집갈 (sijipgal ga))
    (MC reading: (MC kˠaH))
  16. : house
    (eumhun reading: (jip ga))
    (MC reading: (MC tʰuət̚))
  17. : house
    (eumhun reading: (jip ga))
    (MC reading: (MC kˠa))
  18. : severe;harsh
    (eumhun reading: 가혹할 (gahokhal ga))
    (MC reading: (MC ɦɑ))
  19. : lotus root, aubergine
    (eumhun reading: 연줄기, 가지 (yeonjulgi, gaji ga))
    (MC reading: (MC ɡɨɑ, kˠa))
  20. : reed
    (eumhun reading: 갈대 (galdae ga))
    (MC reading: (MC kˠa))
  21. : drinking-cup
    (eumhun reading: 술잔 (suljan ga))
    (MC reading: (MC kˠaX))
  22. : spare time
    (eumhun reading: , 겨를 (teum, gyeoreul ga))
    (MC reading: (MC ɦˠaH))
  23. : rack
    (eumhun reading: 시렁 (sireong ga))
    (MC reading: (MC kˠaH))
  24. : knife;flail
    (eumhun reading: (kal ga))
    (MC reading: (MC ɡɨɑ, kˠa))
  25. : branch
    (eumhun reading: 가지 (gaji ga))
    (MC reading: (MC))
  26. : catalpa
    (eumhun reading: 개오동나무 (gae-odongnamu ga))
    (MC reading: (MC kˠaX))
  27. : catalpa
    (eumhun reading: 개오동나무 (gae-odongnamu ga))
    (MC reading: (MC kˠaX))
  28. : music;song
    (eumhun reading: 노래 (norae ga))
    (MC reading: (MC))
  29. : agate
    (eumhun reading: 마노 (mano ga))
    (MC reading: (MC kʰɑ))
  30. : hair ornament
    (eumhun reading: 머리꾸미개 (meorikkumigae ga))
    (MC reading: (MC kˠa))
  31. : one of the spelling of Buddha's name
    (eumhun reading: 부처 이름 (bucheo ireum ga))
    (MC reading: (MC kɨɑ, kˠa))
  32. : scab
    (eumhun reading: 딱지 (ttakji ga))
    (MC reading: (MC kˠa))
  33. : to plant
    (eumhun reading: 심을 (simeul ga))
    (MC reading: (MC kˠaH))
  34. : a reed pipe
    (eumhun reading: 호드기 (hodeugi ga))
    (MC reading: (MC kˠa))
  35. : flail
    (eumhun reading: 도리깨 (dorikkae ga))
    (MC reading: )
  36. : boat;ship
    (eumhun reading: (bae ga))
    (MC reading: (MCX))
  37. : street
    (eumhun reading: 거리 (geori ga))
    (MC reading: (MC kˠɛ, kˠɛi))
  38. : the robes of fully ordained Buddhist monks and nuns
    (eumhun reading: 가사 (gasa ga))
    (MC reading: (MC kˠa))
  39. : to scold
    (eumhun reading: 꾸짖을 (kkujijeul ga))
    (MC reading: (MC))
  40. : music;song
    (eumhun reading: 노래 (norae ga))
    (MC reading: (MC))
  41. : price, value
    (eumhun reading: (gap ga))
    (MC reading: (MC kuoX, kˠaX, kˠaH))
  42. : to do a lotus position
    (eumhun reading: 책상다리할 (chaeksangdarihal ga))
    (MC reading: (MC kˠa))
  43. : handcart, a surname
    (eumhun reading: 수레, 사람 이름 (sure, saram ireum ga))
    (MC reading: (MC kʰɑ, kʰɑX, kʰɑH))
  44. : yoke
    (eumhun reading: 멍에 (meong-e ga))
    (MC reading: (MC kˠaH))
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 5[edit]

Infinitive of 가다 (gada, “to go”).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key)[ka̠]
  • Phonetic Hangul[]
Revised Romanization? ga
Revised Romanization (translit.)? ga
McCune–Reischauer? ka
Yale Romanization? ka

Verb[edit]

(ga) (infinitive of 가다)

  1. connective form of 가다 (gada, “to go”): because of going, upon going.
  2. informal form of 가다 (gada, “to go”): go (indicative/interrogative/imperative), let's go
Synonyms[edit]
  • (infinitive of 가다, because of going, upon going): 가서 (gaseo)

Etymology 6[edit]

Noun[edit]

(ga)

  1. la (musical note)

References[edit]

  1. ^ 洪允杓, 主格語尾 「-가」에 대하여, 國語學 제3집, 1975.12, 65-91.
  2. ^ 고광모, 주격조사 ‘-가’의 발달, 사단법인 한국언어학회 2013년 겨울학술대회 발표논문집, 2013.12, 69-78.
  3. ^ 홍윤표, 近代國語硏究(Ⅰ), 태학사, 1994, pp. 412-413.
  4. ^ 이숭녕, 주격(主格) '가'의 발달(發達)과 그 해석(解釋), 국어국문학 제19권, 1958.6, 53-57.
  5. ^ 辛兌鉉, 鷄林類事·華夷譯語의 朝鮮 古語 續考, 한글, 1941.3, 9-2(통권84), pp. 1-2.
  6. ^ Ramstedt, G.J., Studies in Korean Etymology, 1949, Helsinki: Suomalais-Ugrilainen Seura.
  7. ^ 李承旭, 副動詞의 虛辭化, 진단학보, (51), 1981, 183-202.
  8. ^ 鄭光, 主格 ‘가’의 發達에 대하여: 近代國語資料의 解釋을 中心으로, 우리문화, 2.