나라

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Jeju[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Korean 國惡 (*NALak). Cognate with Korean 나라 (nara).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

나라 (nara)

  1. country, nation, kingdom

Korean[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

In the Hangul script, first attested in the Yongbi eocheonga (龍飛御天歌 / 용비어천가), 1447, as Middle Korean 나랗〮 (Yale: nàláh), from Old Korean 國惡 (*NALak). Compare Yukjin dialect 나랑 (narang), which preserves the velar nature of the coda consonant.

Beyond Koreanic, the word is usually connected to Proto-Tungusic *nā (land), and hence Manchu ᠨᠠ (na, land) and Nanai на (na, land), with *lak~*lah being a suffix.[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [na̠ɾa̠]
    • (file)
  • Phonetic hangul: []
Romanizations
Revised Romanization?nara
Revised Romanization (translit.)?nala
McCune–Reischauer?nara
Yale Romanization?nala
  • South Gyeongsang (Busan) pitch accent: 라의 / 라에 / 라까지

    Syllables in red take high pitch. This word always takes high pitch only on the first syllable, and lowers the pitch of subsequent suffixes.

Noun[edit]

나라 (nara)

  1. country, nation
    Synonym: 국가(國家) (gukga)
    러시아 세계에서 제일 나라.
    Reosia-neun segye-eseo jeil keun nara-da.
    Russia is the largest country in the world.
  2. government
    나라 이야.
    Igeon nara-ga jun don-iya.
    This is money that the government gave me.
Derived terms[edit]
See also[edit]

Suffix[edit]

—나라 (-nara)

  1. (history) Chinese dynasty
    건륭제 나라 황제였다.
    Geollyungje-neun Cheong-nara-ui hwangje-yeotda.
    The Qianlong emperor was an emperor of the Qing dynasty.
Usage notes[edit]
  • Used only for historical Chinese polities with single-syllable names. Thus 송(宋)나라 (Song-nara, Song dynasty) but simply 북송(北宋) (Buksong, Northern Song). *^북송나라 (*Buksong-nara) is ungrammatical.

Etymology 2[edit]

From Japanese 奈良 (Nara).

Pronunciation[edit]

Romanizations
Revised Romanization?Nara
Revised Romanization (translit.)?Nala
McCune–Reischauer?Nara
Yale Romanization?nala

Proper noun[edit]

나라 (Nara)

  1. Nara (a city in Japan)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Lee, Ki-Moon; Ramsey, S. Robert (2011) A History of the Korean Language, Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, page 24

Middle Korean[edit]

Noun[edit]

나라〮 (nàlá)

  1. Isolated form spelling of 나랗〮 (nàláh, country)