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U+B137, 넷
HANGUL SYLLABLE NES
Composition: + +
Dubeolsik input:s-p-t

[U+B136]
Hangul Syllables
[U+B138]




너 ←→ 녀

Jeju[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • (ne) (for counters)

Etymology[edit]

Cognate with Korean (net).

Pronunciation[edit]

Numeral[edit]

(net)

  1. four

Synonyms[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • ” in Jeju's culture and language, Digital museum.

Korean[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Korean numbers (edit)
40
 ←  3 4 5  → 
    Native isol.: (net)
    Native attr.: (ne), (neok) (dated), (neo) (archaic)
    Sino-Korean: (sa)
    Hanja:
    Ordinal: 넷째 (netjjae)

First attested in the Seokbo sangjeol (釋譜詳節 / 석보상절), 1447, as Middle Korean 넿〯 (Yale: něyh). A form similar to the Middle Korean is first attested in the twelfth-century Jilin leishi, which gives the Korean word for "four" as */nai/.

Beyond the Leishi, the reconstruction of the ancestral Koreanic root for "four" is difficult, although Alexander Vovin (Vovin 2010, p. 181) posits *neki as the direct antecedent (via metathesis) of Middle Korean něyh, on the strength of the Middle Korean form 넉〯 (Yale: něk, “four”, determiner form taken before certain classifiers). See a list of relevant attestations and forms in Appendix:Historical Koreanic numerals#Four.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [ne̞(ː)t̚]
  • Phonetic hangul: [(ː)]
    • Though still prescriptive in Standard Korean, the great majority of speakers (in both Koreas) no longer distinguish vowel length.
Romanizations
Revised Romanization?net
Revised Romanization (translit.)?nes
McCune–Reischauer?net
Yale Romanization?nēys

Numeral[edit]

(net)

  1. (native numeral) four (as a noun)
    Synonym: () (sa, four, Sino-Korean numeral)

Usage notes[edit]

In modern Korean, numbers are usually written in Arabic numerals.

The Korean language has two sets of numerals: a native set of numerals inherited from Old Korean, and a Sino-Korean set which was borrowed from Middle Chinese in the first millennium C.E.

Native classifiers take native numerals.

Some Sino-Korean classifiers take native numerals, others take Sino-Korean numerals, while yet others take both.

Recently loaned classifiers generally take Sino-Korean numerals.

For many terms, a native numeral has a quantifying sense, whereas a Sino-Korean numeral has a sense of labeling.

  • 반(班) (se ban, three school classes, native numeral)
  • 반(班) (sam ban, Class Number Three, Sino-Korean numeral)

When used in isolation, native numerals refer to objects of that number and are used in counting and quantifying, whereas Sino-Korean numerals refer to the numbers in a more mathematical sense.

  • 하나 주세 (hana-man deo juse-yo, Could you give me just one more, please, native numeral)
  • 더하기 ? (Il deohagi ir-eun?, What's one plus one?, Sino-Korean numeral)

While older stages of Korean had native numerals up to the thousands, native numerals currently exist only up to ninety-nine, and Sino-Korean is used for all higher numbers. There is also a tendency—particularly among younger speakers—to uniformly use Sino-Korean numerals for the higher tens as well, so that native numerals such as 일흔 (ilheun, “seventy”) or 아흔 (aheun, “ninety”) are becoming less common.

Related terms[edit]

  • (ne, four, determiner)
  • (neo, four, determiner before certain words, fossilized)
  • (neok, four, determiner before certain words, fossilized)

See also[edit]