되다

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Korean[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

First attested in the Yongbi eocheonga (龍飛御天歌 / 용비어천가), 1447, as Middle Korean ᄃᆞᄫᆡ다 (Yale: toWoyta).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [twe̞da̠] ~ [tø̞da̠]
    • (file)
  • Phonetic hangul: [/]
Romanizations
Revised Romanization?doeda
Revised Romanization (translit.)?doeda
McCune–Reischauer?toeda
Yale Romanization?toyta

Verb[edit]

되다 (doeda) (infinitive or 되어, sequential 되니)

  1. to become
    되다wang-'i doedato become king
    나무 되다ssi-ga namu-ga doedafor the seed to become a tree
  2. (of a time) to come, to arrive
    약속한 시간 되었다.Yaksokhan sigan-i doeeotda.The appointed time has arrived.
  3. (auxiliary, after the / (-eo/a) infinitive) to be permissible; to be OK; may
    질문 해도 돼요?Jilmun haedo dwaeyo?May [I] ask a question?
  4. to be... -ed; follows nouns and nominals to form passive verbs. The noun functions as the (-i) / (-ga)-complement of the verb. When there is no particle in between, the construction is written without spaces.
    Coordinate term: 하다 (hada, for active verbs)
    과장 (gwajang, exaggeration) + ‎되다 (doeda) → ‎과장되다 (gwajangdoeda, to be exaggerated)
    납치 (napchi, kidnapping) + ‎되다 (doeda) → ‎납치되다 (napchidoeda, to be kidnapped)
    언론에서 사건 지나치게 과장 되었습니다.
    Eollon-eseo sageon-i jinachige gwajang-'i doeeotseumnida.
    The incident has been excessively exaggerated in the media.
    납치 되었으나 살해되지 않았습니다.
    Napchi-neun doeeosseuna salhae-doeji-neun anatseumnida.
    He has been kidnapped, but not murdered.
  5. Forms certain adjectives.
    (sok, being secular; being vulgar) + ‎되다 (doeda) → ‎속되다 (sokdoeda, to be vulgar)
Usage notes[edit]
  • Both the subject and the complement of this verb take the "nominative" case markers, (-i) for consonant-final nouns and (-ga) for vowel-final ones.
Derived terms[edit]
Conjugation[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

First attested in the Eonhae duchang jibyo (諺解痘瘡集要 / 언해두창집요), 1608, as Early Modern Korean 되다 (Yale: twoyta).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [ˈtwe̞(ː)da̠] ~ [ˈtø̞(ː)da̠]
  • Phonetic hangul: [(ː)/(ː)]
    • Though still prescriptive in Standard Korean, the great majority of speakers (in both Koreas) no longer distinguish vowel length.
Romanizations
Revised Romanization?doeda
Revised Romanization (translit.)?doeda
McCune–Reischauer?toeda
Yale Romanization?tōyta

Adjective[edit]

되다 (doeda) (infinitive or 되어, sequential 되니)

  1. (to be) hard
  2. (to be) thick
  3. (to be) severe
Conjugation[edit]