바다

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Korean[edit]

Etymology[edit]

First attested in the Worin seokbo (月印釋譜 / 월인석보), 1459, as Middle Korean 바닿〮 (Yale: pàtáh), from pre-Middle Korean *바닥〮 (Yale: *pàták), a form still preserved directly in certain southern dialects. An Old Korean phrase attested in a tenth-century poem, 惡中 (in the sea), has sometimes been segmented as 海惡 (*PATak-kuy, in the sea), which would provide direct attestation of *pàták. However, this is conventionally understood as 惡中 (*PATOL-a-kuy, in the sea), with 惡中 a spelling variant of the fused locative 良中 (*a-kuy).

The */-k/ may be the remnant of an archaic place suffix (see Appendix:Middle Korean h-final nouns), which leaves *바다〮 (Yale: *pàtá) as the etymological root; this notion is further supported by the existence of the alternative Middle Korean form 바ᄅᆞᆯ〮 (Yale: pàlól), representing intervocalic lenition of /t/ to [ɾ] (phonemically /l/) from Old Korean 海等 (*PAtol), a form presumably related to *pàták but with different suffixation. Despite being both the only attested Old Korean form and the more common Middle Korean form, the variant with coda /l/ is now lost in most dialects.

The word may speculatively be related to 바닥 (badak, floor; flat surface), according to Kim 2008. Beyond Korean, the word is believed to be related to Japanese (わた) (wata, sea), perhaps via ancient borrowing from Korean to Japanese, given the apparent lack of derivatives in Japonic languages, compared to the established Japonic root *omi (sea, ocean) with many derived terms.

Pronunciation[edit]

Romanizations
Revised Romanization?bada
Revised Romanization (translit.)?bada
McCune–Reischauer?pada
Yale Romanization?pata
  • South Gyeongsang (Busan) pitch accent: 다의 / 다에 / 다까지

    Syllables in red take high pitch. This word always takes high pitch only on the first syllable, and lowers the pitch of subsequent suffixes.

Noun[edit]

바다 (bada)

  1. sea, ocean
    바다 하늘 모두 얼마나 푸르렀는지, 수평선 따위 누군가 지어낸 이야기 이라고 확신했다.
    Badawa haneul modu eolmana pureureonneunji, supyeongseon ttawi-neun nugun'ga jieonaen iyagi-il ppunirago na-neun hwaksinhaetda.
    The sea and the sky were both so blue that I was certain that the horizon was but a story someone had made up.
    Synonyms: 해양(海洋) (haeyang, ocean), 대양(大洋) (daeyang, ocean)
    Antonyms: (ttang, land), 육지(陸地) (yukji, land, mainland), (mut, land, mainland)

Synonyms[edit]

Historical and regional synonyms of 바다 (bada, sea)
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GroupRegionLocationWords
Standardised formsSouth Korean Standard Language바다 (bada)
North Korean Cultured Language바다 (bada)
Historical formsOld Korean海等 (*PAtol)
Middle Korean바닿〮 (pàtáh), 바ᄅᆞᆯ〮 (pàlól)
Early Modern Seoul Korean바다 (bada), 바닿 (bada)
Central KoreanGyeonggiModern colloquial Seoul바다 (bada)
Kaesong바다 (bada)
Changpung바다 (bada)
Yeoncheon바다 (bada)
Yongin바대 (badae)
YeongseoKosan바다 (bada)
YeongdongGangneung바다 (bàdà)
Wonsan바다 (bada)
Kumya바다 (bada)
Munchon바다 (bada)
Anbyeon바다 (bada)
Yangyang바다 (bada)
Samcheok바다 (bádà)
North ChungcheongCheongju바다 (bada)
Chungju바다 (bada)
Danyang바다 (bada)
Boeun바다 (bada)
Yeongdong바다 (bada)
South ChungcheongCheonan바다 (bada)
Hongseong바다 (bada)
Gongju바다 (bada)
Seocheon바다 (bada)
Nonsan바다 (bada), 바대 (badae)
South HwanghaeHaeju바다 (bada)
Ongjin바다 (bada)
Yonan바다 (bada)
Taetan바다 (bada)
Chaeryong바다 (bada)
Changyon바다 (bada)
Unnyul바다 (bada)
North HwanghaeHwangju바다 (bada)
Sohung바다 (bada)
Kumchon바다 (bada)
Singye바다 (bada)
Suan바다 (bada)
Yonsan바다 (bada)
Southeastern Korean
(Gyeongsang)
North GyeongsangDaegu바다 (bádà)
Uljin바다 (bádà), 바닥 (bádàk)
Yecheon바다 (bádà)
Andong바다 (bádà)
Uiseong바다 (bádà)
Cheongsong바다 (bádà)
Yeongdeok바다 (bádà), 바닥 (bádàk)
Gimcheon바다 (bádà)
Pohang바다 (bádà)
Yeongcheon바다 (bádà)
Goryeong바다 (bádà)
South GyeongsangBusan바다 (bádà), 바당 (bádàng)
Ulsan바다 (bádà)
Changwon바다 (bádà), 바당 (bádàng)
Geochang바다 (bádà), 바닥 (bádàk)
Hapcheon바다 (bádà)
Changnyeong바대 (bádè), 바당 (bádàng)
Hamyang바다 (bádà)
Hadong바닥 (bádàk)
Jinju바다 (bádà), 바당 (bádàng), 바닥 (bádàk)
Haman바닥 (bádàk)
Gimhae바다 (bádà)
Yangsan바다 (bádà)
Sacheon바닥 (bádàk)
Goseong바닥 (bádàk)
Namhae바다 (bádà), 바닥 (bádàk)
Tongyeong바다 (bádà), 바당 (bádàng), 바닥 (bádàk)
Geoje바당 (bádàng), 바닥 (bádàk)
Southwestern Korean
(Jeolla)
North JeollaJeonju바대 (badae)
Jinan바대 (badae)
Muju바대 (badae)
Gimje바대 (badae)
Jeongeup바대 (badae)
Imsil바대 (badae)
Jangsu바대 (badae)
Sunchang바대 (badae)
Namwon바대 (badae)
South JeollaGwangju바다 (bada)
Yeonggwang바대 (bade)
Jangseong바대 (bade)
Damyang바대 (bade)
Gokseong바대 (bade)
Gurye바대 (badae)
Hampyeong바대 (bade)
Sinan바닥 (badak)
Mokpo바닥 (badak)
Naju바대 (bade), 바다 (bada)
Suncheon바다 (bada)
Gwangyang바대 (badae)
Yeongam바대 (bade)
Jindo바닥 (badak)
Haenam바대 (bade), 바닥 (badak)
Gangjin바대 (bade)
Wando바닥 (badak), 바탕 (batang) (less common)
Jangheung바대 (bade)
Boseong바대 (badae)
Goheung바닥 (badak)
Yeosu바닥 (badak), 바당 (badang)
Northwestern Korean
(Pyongan)
South PyonganPyongyang바다 (bada)
North PyonganPakchon바다 (bada)
Nyongbyon바다 (bada)
Kusong바다 (bada)
Huichon바다 (bada)
Kanggye바다 (bada)
Chasong바다 (bada)
Northeastern Korean
(Hamgyong)
South HamgyongHamhung바다 (bàdá)
Chongpyong바다 (bàdá)
Yonggwang바다 (bàdá)
Sinhung바다 (bàdá)
Hongwon바다 (bàdá)
Pukchong바다 (bàdá)
Tanchon바당 (bàdáng)
North HamgyongChongjin바다 (bàdá)
Kimchaek바다 (bàdá)
Kilju바당 (bàdáng)
Myongchon바다 (bàdá)
Kyongsong바다 (bàdá)
Puryong바다 (bàdá)
Musan바당 (bàdáng)
Hyesan바다 (bàdá)
Kapsan바다 (bàdá)
Pungso바다 (bàdá)
Kimhyongjik바다 (bàdá)
Yukjin KoreanYukjinKyonghung바다 (bàdá)
Hoeryong바당 (bàdáng)
Onsong바다 (bàdá)
Kyongwon바당 (bàdáng)
DiasporaHunchun바다 (bàdá)
JejuJeju City바당 (badang), 와당 (wadang)
Daejeong바당 (badang), 와당 (wadang), 바릇 (bareut)
Gujwa바당 (badang), 와당 (wadang)
Seogwipo바당 (badang), 와당 (wadang), 바릇 (bareut)
Note: Jeolla and Gyeongsang speakers may prefer to use words for 'beach' or 'seashore' in contexts where Seoul speakers would use 바다.
This table is an amalgamation of surveys of speakers mostly born before 1950 and may not reflect the language of younger speakers, which has lexically converged towards the standard Seoul dialect in both North and South Koreas.

Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • 김영일 (2008), “한국어 어휘 비교의 재인식 [A new approach to Korean lexical comparisons]”, in Hangeul, volume 279, pages 153−176
  • Alexander Vovin (2010) Koreo-Japonica: A Re-evaluation of a Genetic Origin, University of Hawaii Press, →ISBN.
  • Vovin, Alexander (2015), “On The Etymology of Middle Korean psʌr 'rice'”, in Türk Dilleri Araştırmaları[2], issue 25.2, pages 229-238
  • 박석문 (Park Seok-mun), 서장국 (Seo Jang-guk) (2015), “국어 어말음 ‘ㄱ’의 교체와 변화에 대하여 [On the alternation and change of the Korean coda consonant *-k]”, in Ban'gyo Eomun Yeon'gu, volume 41, pages 315–334

Middle Korean[edit]

Noun[edit]

바다〮 (pàtá)

  1. Isolated form spelling of 바닿〮 (pàtáh, sea; ocean)