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U+C740, 은
HANGUL SYLLABLE EUN
Composition: + +
Dubeolsik input:d-m-s

[U+C73F]
Hangul Syllables
[U+C741]




유 ←→ 의

Korean[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Romanizations
Revised Romanization?eun
Revised Romanization (translit.)?eun
McCune–Reischauer?ŭn
Yale Romanization?un

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle Korean 은〮/ᄋᆞᆫ〮 (Yale: ún/ón), from Old Korean (*-(u)n). Attested since the very beginning of Korean writing in the first millennium. The post-vocalic form (neun) is probably formed by pre-Middle Korean reduplication, with the original form (n) now relegated to colloquial speech.

Alternative forms[edit]

After consonants After vowels
(eun) (neun) (general) (n) (colloquial)

Particle[edit]

(eun)

  1. The Korean topic marker, with various nuances according to context:
    1. Used to mark an already known topic, to which the subsequent statement applies.
      오늘 너무 춥다.Oneureun neomu chupda.Today [TOP] is too cold.
      잊어버리자.Geu ireun ijeobeorija.Let's forget about that business [TOP].
      서울 사람 너무 많다.Seoureneun sarami neomu manta.In Seoul [TOP], there are too many people.
    2. Used to mark the topic in statements of general fact.
      한국 작은 나라 아닙니다.Han'gugeun jageun naraga animnida.Korea [TOP] is not a small country.
      매일 아침 동쪽에서 뜬다.Haeneun maeil achim dongjjogeseo tteunda.The sun [TOP] rises every morning in the east.
    3. what about; Used without a predicate to demand new information about an already known topic.
      이건 엄마 . ― 아빠 ?Igeon eomma kkeoya. ― appa kkeoneun?This is for Mom. ― And for Dad [TOP]?
      우리 여기 있어. ― 너희 누나?Uri hyeong yeogi isseo. ― neohui nunaneun?My brother is here. ― And your sister [TOP]?
    4. Used in contrastive constructions, often with an exclusive sense (i.e. this and not anything else).
      예쁘네.Nuneun yeppeune.Her eyes [TOP] are pretty [implied: but she is otherwise not pretty.]
      친구 많은데 절친 없다.Chin'guneun maneunde jeolchineun eopda.She has lots of friends [TOP] but no best friend [TOP].
    5. Used with an emphatic sense.
      없이 산다.Neo eopsineun mot sanda.I can't live without [TOP] you.
    6. Used to background previously known information, in order to highlight the importance of the statement which follows; the marked topic is omittable.
      딱히 하고 싶은 없어.nan ttakhi hago sipeun mal eopsseo.I [TOP] don't have anything in particular I want to say.
Usage notes[edit]
  • (eun) can appear after bare nouns and pronouns, adverbs, certain verbal connective suffixes (e.g. (myeon, if), 어서 (eoseo, and then)), and most case-marking particles. It is not compatible with nominative case markers (ga) and (i), or with accusative case marker (eul); if a noun in the nominative or accusative is topic-marked, the case-marking particle cannot appear.
  • The distinction between topic-marking (eun) and subject-marking (ga) and (i) is often difficult for non-fluent speakers. Essentially, (eun) is explicitly topicalizing, i.e. marking previously known information as the topic to which the new information in the subsequent statement applies, while (ga) and (i) (by virtue of not being explicitly topicalizing) has a focalizing connotation, i.e. marking the preceding word as new information introduced into the discourse. Compare the context of the following:
    지금 어디야? — 벌써 왔는데?
    neo jigeum eodiya? — nan beolsseo wanneunde?
    Where are you? — But I[TOP]'ve already come.
    The newly introduced focus is the fact of having come.
    누가 왔어? — 왔지.
    Nuga wasseo? naega watji.
    Who came? — I [NON-TOP] did, of course.
    The newly introduced focus is the person who has come.
  • Accordingly, (eun) can only be used for a topic that is already shared knowledge to both discourse participants. In the first example below, topic-marked 오빠 (oppaneun) is ungrammatical because the identity of the person is not shared knowledge prior to the conversation. But once the presence of the older brother is shared knowledge, topic-marking can be used:
    누구? — 우리 오빠 있대.
    Nuguya? uri oppaga hal mal itdae.
    Who is it? — My older brother says he has something to say.
    너희 오빠 한밤중 전화하냐?
    Neohui oppaneun wae tto hanbamjung'e jeonhwahanya?
    Why is your older brother calling in the middle of the night again?
Similarly, the use of (eun) in statements of general fact can be explained by the fact that the existence of e.g. Korea or the sun is already common knowledge to all discourse participants.
  • When a topic-marked word or phrase is at the beginning of the sentence, it is most commonly intended as either the topic or the background information of the rest of the sentence. When it appears within a sentence, it is almost always contrastive or emphatic.
See also[edit]
  • (i), (ga) (nominative case markers)
  • (ha) (Japanese equivalent)

Etymology 2[edit]

Chemical element
Ag
Previous: 팔라듐 (palladyum) (Pd)
Next: 카드뮴 (kadeumyum) (Cd)

Sino-Korean word from (silver).

Noun[edit]

(eun) (hanja )

  1. silver
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Korean reading of various Chinese characters.

Syllable[edit]

(eun)

Extended content
  1. :
    (MC reading: (MC ʔən))
  2. :
    (MC reading: (MC ŋˠiɪn))
  3. :
    (MC reading: (MC ʔɨnX, ʔɨnH))
  4. :
    (MC reading: (MC ŋˠiɪn, ŋɨn, ŋən))
  5. :
    (MC reading: (MC ʔɨn, ʔˠɛn))
  6. :
    (MC reading: (MC ŋˠiɪn))
  7. :
    (MC reading: (MC ʔɨn))
  8. :
    (MC reading: (MC ŋˠiɪn))
  9. :
    (MC reading: (MC ʔɨn))
  10. :
    (MC reading: )
  11. :
    (MC reading: (MC ʔɨnH))
  12. :
    (MC reading: (MC ŋiɪnX, ŋɨnX))
  13. 𤨒: personal name
    (eumhun reading: 사람 이름 (saram ireum eun))
    (MC reading: 𤨒)
  14. :
    (MC reading: (MC ŋɨn, ŋən))
  15. :
    (MC reading: )
  16. :
    (MC reading: (MC ʔɨnH))
  17. :
    (MC reading: )
  18. :
    (MC reading: )
  19. 泿:
    (MC reading: 泿 (MC ŋˠiɪn, ŋən))
  20. :
    (MC reading: )
  21. :
    (MC reading: )
  22. :
    (MC reading: (MC ŋˠiɪn))
  23. :
    (MC reading: (MC ʔɨnX))
  24. 𪙤:
    (MC reading: 𪙤 (MC ŋiɪnX))
  25. ⿰氵恩:
    (MC reading: ⿰氵恩 (MC ʔən))
  26. :
    (MC reading: (MC ŋˠiɪn))
  27. :
    (MC reading: (MC ŋˠiɪnH, ŋɨnH))
  28. :
    (MC reading: (MC ŋˠiɪn, ŋɨn))
  29. :
    (MC reading: )
  30. :
    (MC reading: (MC ŋˠiɪn))
  31. :
    (MC reading: (MC ŋˠiɪn, ŋɨn))
  32. :
    (MC reading: (MC ŋɨn, ŋiɪnX))
  33. 𨶡: Alternative form of
    (MC reading: 𨶡)

References[edit]