๐Œพ๐Œน๐Œฟ๐Œป๐Œด๐Œน๐ƒ

Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Gothic[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *jiulijaz (โ€œYulemonthโ€), a suffix-stressed -ja-extension of Proto-Germanic *jehwlฤ… (โ€œYuleโ€) (by way of Verner's Law) and cognate to Old Norse รฝlir (โ€œmonth lasting from late November to late Decemberโ€) and possibly Old English giuli (โ€œDecember and Januaryโ€) (Schaffner 2001, Lehmann 1986).

David Landau argues, however, that the word is an abbreviated nomen sacrum and that an original pagan meaning would be very improbable, denying a Proto-Germanic origin. The word is, in his view, a loan from Ancient Greek แผฐฯ‰ฮฒฮทฮปฮฑแฟ–ฮฟฯ‚ (iลbฤ“laรฎos), in the Biblical sense of Jubilee, ultimately from Hebrew ื™ื•ึนื‘ึตืœ‎ (which may in turn derive from an Indo-European language; see the discussion at jubilee). Regarding the apparent Germanic cognates of the Gothic term (including forms of and cognates to Old English geol (โ€œYuleโ€) and Finnish juhla (โ€œcelebrationโ€)), he argues that the whole family of words derive similarly, and that the -h- that is found in certain forms is not etymological. (This, it should be stressed, is not a majority view.)

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /หˆjiuฬฏ.liหs/

Noun[edit]

๐Œพ๐Œน๐Œฟ๐Œป๐Œด๐Œน๐ƒ โ€ข (jiuleism

  1. (hapax) "Yulemonth" (possibly November, December, or both)
    • 6th Century, Calendar (Codex Ambrosianus A) :[1]
      ๐Œฝ๐Œฐ๐Œฟ๐Œฑ๐Œฐ๐Œน๐Œผ๐Œฑ๐Œฐ๐Œน๐‚[?] [...] ๐†๐‚๐Œฟ๐Œผ๐Œฐ ๐Œพ๐Œน๐Œฟ๐Œป๐Œด๐Œน๐ƒ ยท๐Œปยท.
      naubaimbair[?] [...] fruma jiuleis ยทlยท.
      November[?] [...] first/before Yulemonth 30
      (the first word is barely legible)

Usage notes[edit]

Only attested in the phrase ๐†๐‚๐Œฟ๐Œผ๐Œฐ ๐Œพ๐Œน๐Œฟ๐Œป๐Œด๐Œน๐ƒ (fruma jiuleis, โ€œfirst/before 'jiuleis'โ€), which has also been read as a compound ๐†๐‚๐Œฟ๐Œผ๐Œฐ๐Œพ๐Œน๐Œฟ๐Œป๐Œด๐Œน๐ƒ (frumajiuleis); the two-word compound or phrase may mean "November" as it occurs after a word that has traditionally been read as ๐Œฝ๐Œฐ๐Œฟ๐Œฑ๐Œฐ๐Œน๐Œผ๐Œฑ๐Œฐ๐Œน๐‚ (naubaimbair, โ€œNovemberโ€); as ๐†๐‚๐Œฟ๐Œผ๐Œฐ ๐ƒ๐Œฐ๐Œฑ๐Œฑ๐Œฐ๐„๐‰ (fruma sabbatล) elsewhere means "Friday", Streitberg and Lehmann interpreted ๐Œพ๐Œน๐Œฟ๐Œป๐Œด๐Œน๐ƒ as the month following November.

Due to the text being a poorly-conserved palimpsest and there being no other similar texts with which to compare, the interpretation of the month-line in this manuscript is very unclear. Landau disputes the interpretation of the first word as naubaimbair (see ๐Œฝ๐Œฐ๐Œฟ๐Œฑ๐Œฐ๐Œน๐Œผ๐Œฑ๐Œฐ๐Œน๐‚ (naubaimbair)), claiming it is too illegible to definitively establish that reading (versus the relatively clearly visible fruma jiuleis at the end). For a clearer view of the difficulties surrounding this line, refer to the articles below. Falluomini (apud Miller 2017) also considers the word to be nearly illegible: The only certain letters are . . . bainb . . . (n is more likely than m); Snรฆdal on the other hand believed that ๐Œฝ๐Œฐ๐Œฟ๐Œฑ๐Œฐ๐Œน๐Œผ๐Œฑ๐Œฐ๐Œน๐‚ (naubaimbair) was at least once sufficiently legible to allow earlier philologists (such as Uppstrรถm and Ebbinghaus) to read it correctly.

Declension[edit]

Masculine ja-stem
Singular Plural
Nominative ๐Œพ๐Œน๐Œฟ๐Œป๐Œด๐Œน๐ƒ
jiuleis
๐Œพ๐Œน๐Œฟ๐Œป๐Œพ๐‰๐ƒ
jiuljลs
Vocative ๐Œพ๐Œน๐Œฟ๐Œป๐Œน
jiuli
๐Œพ๐Œน๐Œฟ๐Œป๐Œพ๐‰๐ƒ
jiuljลs
Accusative ๐Œพ๐Œน๐Œฟ๐Œป๐Œน
jiuli
๐Œพ๐Œน๐Œฟ๐Œป๐Œพ๐Œฐ๐Œฝ๐ƒ
jiuljans
Genitive ๐Œพ๐Œน๐Œฟ๐Œป๐Œด๐Œน๐ƒ
jiuleis
๐Œพ๐Œน๐Œฟ๐Œป๐Œพ๐Œด
jiuljฤ“
Dative ๐Œพ๐Œน๐Œฟ๐Œป๐Œพ๐Œฐ
jiulja
๐Œพ๐Œน๐Œฟ๐Œป๐Œพ๐Œฐ๐Œผ
jiuljam

Hypernyms[edit]

Coordinate terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Anhang II. Der gotische Kalender Excerpt from: Die gotische Bibel: Herausgegeben von Wilhelm Streitberg. (Germanische Bibliothek, 2. Abteilung, 3. Band) 1. Teil: Der gotische Text und seine griechische Vorlage. Mit Einleitung, Lesarten und Quellennachweisen sowie den kleineren Denkmรคlern als Anhang. Heidelberg: Carl Winter, 1919. (S. 472 - 474). Project Wulfila (http://www.wulfila.be) - University of Antwerp (Belgium), 2001.
  • Miller, Gary, The Oxford Gothic Grammar (Oxford University Press 2017) p. xxv
  • Schaffner, Stefan. Der Venersche Gesetz und der innerparadigmatische grammatische Wechsel des urgermanischen im Nominalbereich (Innsbrucker Beitrรคge zur Sprachwissenschaft 103). (W. Meid ed. Innsbruck 2001), pp. 228-230
  • Streitberg, Wilhelm (1910). Die gotische Bibel. Zweiter Teil: Gotisch-griechisch-deutsches Wรถrterbuch. Heidelberg: Carl Winterโ€™s Universitรคtsbuchhandlung, p. 72