πŒΎπŒΉπŒΏπŒ»πŒ΄πŒΉπƒ

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Gothic[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *jiulijaz (β€œYulemonth”), a suffix-stressed -ja-extension of Proto-Germanic *jehwlΔ… (β€œYule”) (by way of Verner's law) and cognate to Old Norse Γ½lir (β€œmonth lasting from late November to late December”) and possibly Old English giuli (β€œDecember and January”) (Schaffner 2001, Lehmann 1986).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ˈjiuΜ―.liːs/

Noun[edit]

πŒΎπŒΉπŒΏπŒ»πŒ΄πŒΉπƒ β€’ (jiuleism

  1. (hapax) "Yulemonth" (possibly November, December, or both)
    • 6th Century, Calendar (Codex Ambrosianus A) :[1]
      πŒ½πŒ°πŒΏπŒ±πŒ°πŒΉπŒΌπŒ±πŒ°πŒΉπ‚[?] [...] π†π‚πŒΏπŒΌπŒ° πŒΎπŒΉπŒΏπŒ»πŒ΄πŒΉπƒ ·𐌻·.
      naubaimbair[?] [...] fruma jiuleis Β·lΒ·.
      November[?] [...] first/before Yulemonth 30
      (the first word is barely legible)

Usage notes[edit]

Only attested in the phrase π†π‚πŒΏπŒΌπŒ° πŒΎπŒΉπŒΏπŒ»πŒ΄πŒΉπƒ (fruma jiuleis, β€œfirst/before 'jiuleis'”), which has also been read as a compound π†π‚πŒΏπŒΌπŒ°πŒΎπŒΉπŒΏπŒ»πŒ΄πŒΉπƒ (frumajiuleis); the two-word compound or phrase may mean "November" as it occurs after a word that has traditionally been read as πŒ½πŒ°πŒΏπŒ±πŒ°πŒΉπŒΌπŒ±πŒ°πŒΉπ‚ (naubaimbair, β€œNovember”); as π†π‚πŒΏπŒΌπŒ° πƒπŒ°πŒ±πŒ±πŒ°π„π‰ (fruma sabbatō) elsewhere means "Friday", Streitberg and Lehmann interpreted πŒΎπŒΉπŒΏπŒ»πŒ΄πŒΉπƒ as the month following November.

Due to the text being a poorly-conserved palimpsest and there being no other similar texts with which to compare, the interpretation of the month-line in this manuscript is very unclear. Landau disputes the interpretation of the first word as naubaimbair (see πŒ½πŒ°πŒΏπŒ±πŒ°πŒΉπŒΌπŒ±πŒ°πŒΉπ‚ (naubaimbair)), claiming it is too illegible to definitively establish that reading (versus the relatively clearly visible fruma jiuleis at the end). For a clearer view of the difficulties surrounding this line, refer to the articles below. Falluomini (apud Miller 2017) also considers the word to be nearly illegible: The only certain letters are . . . bainb . . . (n is more likely than m); SnΓ¦dal on the other hand believed that πŒ½πŒ°πŒΏπŒ±πŒ°πŒΉπŒΌπŒ±πŒ°πŒΉπ‚ (naubaimbair) was at least once sufficiently legible to allow earlier philologists (such as UppstrΓΆm and Ebbinghaus) to read it correctly.

Declension[edit]

Masculine ja-stem
Singular Plural
Nominative πŒΎπŒΉπŒΏπŒ»πŒ΄πŒΉπƒ
jiuleis
πŒΎπŒΉπŒΏπŒ»πŒΎπ‰πƒ
jiuljōs
Vocative 𐌾𐌹𐌿𐌻𐌹
jiuli
πŒΎπŒΉπŒΏπŒ»πŒΎπ‰πƒ
jiuljōs
Accusative 𐌾𐌹𐌿𐌻𐌹
jiuli
πŒΎπŒΉπŒΏπŒ»πŒΎπŒ°πŒ½πƒ
jiuljans
Genitive πŒΎπŒΉπŒΏπŒ»πŒ΄πŒΉπƒ
jiuleis
𐌾𐌹𐌿𐌻𐌾𐌴
jiuljΔ“
Dative 𐌾𐌹𐌿𐌻𐌾𐌰
jiulja
𐌾𐌹𐌿𐌻𐌾𐌰𐌼
jiuljam

Hypernyms[edit]

Coordinate terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Anhang II. Der gotische Kalender Excerpt from: Die gotische Bibel: Herausgegeben von Wilhelm Streitberg. (Germanische Bibliothek, 2. Abteilung, 3. Band) 1. Teil: Der gotische Text und seine griechische Vorlage. Mit Einleitung, Lesarten und Quellennachweisen sowie den kleineren DenkmΓ€lern als Anhang. Heidelberg: Carl Winter, 1919. (S. 472 - 474). Project Wulfila (http://www.wulfila.be) - University of Antwerp (Belgium), 2001.
  • Miller, D. Gary (2019) The Oxford Gothic Grammar, Oxford: Oxford University Press, β†’ISBN, page xxv
  • Schaffner, Stefan. Der Venersche Gesetz und der innerparadigmatische grammatische Wechsel des urgermanischen im Nominalbereich (Innsbrucker BeitrΓ€ge zur Sprachwissenschaft 103). (W. Meid ed. Innsbruck 2001), pp. 228-230
  • Streitberg, Wilhelm (1910). Die gotische Bibel. Zweiter Teil: Gotisch-griechisch-deutsches WΓΆrterbuch. Heidelberg: Carl Winter’s UniversitΓ€tsbuchhandlung, p. 72