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Old Persian[edit]


From Proto-Indo-Iranian *(H)utá, from *(H)u, from Proto-Indo-European *h₂u. Cognate with Younger Avestan 𐬎𐬙𐬀 (uta), Parthian [script needed] ('wd), Sanskrit उत (utá).

Mayrhofer and others suggested a further connection with Ancient Greek αὖτε (aûte, again), ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *h₂u-te.[1] This connection has been disputed by later scholars due to the difference in usage, but a direct PIE ancestor is still possible; Celtiberian [Term?] (uta) serves an identical function, and on this basis Klein reconstructs Proto-Indo-European *utá.[2]


𐎢𐎫𐎠 (u-t-a)[3]

  1. and


  • Middle Persian: 𐭠𐭥𐭣 (ʾwd /ud/), 𐭠𐭥 (ʾw /u/)
    • Classical Persian: [Term?]
      • Persian: و (o, va)
      • Tajik: у (u), ва (va) (after a pause)

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Mayrhofer, Manfred (1992–2001), “utá”, in Etymologisches Wörterbuch des Altindoarischen [Etymological Dictionary of Old Indo-Aryan] (in German), Heidelberg: Carl Winter Universitätsverlag, page 212
  2. ^ Klein, Jared S. (1992), “Some Indo-European Systems of Conjunction: Rigveda, Old Persian, Homer”, in Harvard Studies in Classical Philology, volume 94, DOI:10.2307/311418, pages 1–51
  3. ^ Michiel de Vaan; Alexander Lubotsky (2011), “Old Persian”, in Languages from the World of the Bible, Walter de Gruyter, pages 194–208