- wet, moist
Probably borrowed or assimilated from Semitic Akkadian napṭu, "petroleum" (cf. Syriac ܢܦܛܐ, Hebrew נפט (néft), Arabic نفط (nifṭ, nafṭ)), from the verb napâṭu, nabâṭu ("to be(come) bright", "to shine", or "to flare up", "to blaze").
Possible connection to the Indo-Iranian god Apam Napat, whose name means "son of the waters". He is described in the Vedas as emerging from water with a golden appearance, theorised by some to be reference to fire which could have been inspired by a burning seepage of natural gas.
- Middle Persian: npt' (naft, “moist, damp; naphtha”)→ Persian: نفت (naft, “petroleum, oil”)
- Greek: νάφθα (náftha, “naphtha”)
- Latin: naphtha (see there for further descendants)
- Gershevitch, Ilya (1969). "Amber at Persepolis". Studia Classica et Orientalia Antonino Pagliaro oblata. archive.org. ii: 212. Retrieved 1 September 2018.
- Avestan and Old Persian Morphology, p. 864
- A Concise Pahlavi Dictionary, p. 57
- Encyclopædia Iranica – Persian Elements in English
- Henning, W. B. (1940). "Review of Archaeologische Mitteilungen aus Iran. Vols. vii-ix". Bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies, University of London. 10 (2): 501–507. Retrieved 3 September 2018, p. 506
- R. J. Forbes (1966) Studies in Ancient Technology, Brill Archive, GGKEY:YDBU5XT36QD, page 13