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See also: and
U+4FAF, 侯
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4FAF

[U+4FAE]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4FB0]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
9 strokes

Han character[edit]

(Kangxi radical 9, +7, 9 strokes, cangjie input 人弓一大 (ONMK), four-corner 27234, composition⿱⿱𠃍 or ⿰⿱⿱)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 103, character 7
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 633
  • Dae Jaweon: page 218, character 20
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 167, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+4FAF

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp. #
alternative forms ancient form
𥎦 ancient form
𬾗 historical variant
𬾃 historical variant
Wikipedia has articles on:

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
侯-oracle.svg 侯-bronze.svg 侯-seal.svg 侯-bigseal.svg




References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Pictogram (象形)

Etymology[edit]

"target" > "prince, marquis"
(OC *ɡoː)'s connection to archery is noted by Schuessler (2007), Theobald (2017)[1], Goldin (2021), etc. Goldin further relates it to (OC *ɡoː, *ɡoːs, “arrow with metal tip”), which Schuessler instead relates to (OC *ɡoːʔ, *ɡoːs).
Schuessler (2007) proposes an Austroasiatic etymology, comparing (OC *ɡoː) to Khmer គាស់ (kŏəh, to raise (a crossbow) with a view to aiming), Khmer [script needed] (kpoḥ, to be raised up, clearly visible), & Khmer [script needed] (goḥ, to hit (squarely)).
When meaning "target > prince, marquis", possibly distinct from (OC *ɡoːʔ, *ɡoːs, “(head >) ruler > queen”) (Schuessler, 2007; Goldin, 2021).
Its derivatives, from sense "target (n.) > to target (v.)", are (OC *ɡoːs) & (OC *koːn, *koːns), both meaning "to watch" (Schuessler, 2007); contra Lau (1999), who thinks sense "to watch" to be fundamental and "target; lord, marquis" to be derivatives..
"to be; to have"
Austroasiatic (Schuessler, 2007). Compare Proto-Vietic *kɔːʔ (to have, to be) and Proto-Monic *gooʔ (to get, to possess); compare also Jingpho gu³¹ (to have).

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Note:
  • hô͘/hiô - literary (incl. surname in Xiamen and Zhangzhou);
  • kâu - vernacular (incl. surname, dated in Xiamen, Quanzhou, Zhangzhou);
  • hâu - vernacular (incl. surname in Quanzhou and Taiwan).
Note:
  • hou5 - all senses (incl. surname);
  • gao5 - surname.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /xou³⁵/
    Harbin /xou²⁴/
    Tianjin /xou⁴⁵/
    Jinan /xou⁴²/
    Qingdao /xou⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /xou⁴²/
    Xi'an /xou²⁴/
    Xining /xɯ²⁴/
    Yinchuan /xəu⁵³/
    Lanzhou /xou⁵³/
    Ürümqi /xɤu⁵¹/
    Wuhan /xəu²¹³/
    Chengdu /xəu³¹/
    Guiyang /xəu²¹/
    Kunming /xəu³¹/
    Nanjing /xəɯ²⁴/
    Hefei /xɯ⁵⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /xəu¹¹/
    Pingyao /xəu¹³/
    Hohhot /xəu³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /ɦɤ²³/
    Suzhou /ɦɤ¹³/
    Hangzhou /ɦei²¹³/
    Wenzhou /ɦau³¹/
    Hui Shexian /xiu⁴⁴/
    Tunxi
    Xiang Changsha /xəu¹³/
    Xiangtan /ɦəɯ¹²/
    Gan Nanchang /hɛu²⁴/
    Hakka Meixian /heu¹¹/
    Taoyuan /heu¹¹/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /hɐu²¹/
    Nanning /hɐu²¹/
    Hong Kong /hɐu²¹/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /hɔ³⁵/
    /kau³⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /hɛu⁵³/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /e²¹/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /hou⁵⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /hɔu³¹/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (33)
    Final () (137)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ɦəu/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ɦəu/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ɣəu/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ɦəw/
    Li
    Rong
    /ɣu/
    Wang
    Li
    /ɣəu/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ɣə̯u/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    hóu
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    hau4
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    hóu
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ huw ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[ɡ]ˁ(r)o/
    English feudal lord

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 5139
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ɡoː/
    Notes

    Definitions[edit]

    1. marquis; lord
    2. (obsolete) target
    3. (obsolete) to be, to have
    4. a surname
        ―  Hóu Xiàoxián  ―  Hou Hsiao-hsien (Taiwanese film director)

    Compounds[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: (こう) (, marquess)
    • Korean: (, hu, “marquess”)
    • Vietnamese: hầu (, marquess)

    Others:

    Pronunciation 2[edit]


    Note:
    • hô͘ - literary (common);
    • hō͘ - literary (rare);
    • hāu - vernacular (rare).

    Definitions[edit]

    1. Only used in 閩侯闽侯 (Mǐnhòu).

    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (common “Jōyō” kanji)

    1. marquis
    2. lord
    3. daimyo

    Readings[edit]


    Korean[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC ɦəu).

    Historical readings

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 제후 (jehu hu))

    1. Hanja form? of (marquis; lord).
    2. Hanja form? of (target in archery).

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Nôm readings: hậu, hầu

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    References[edit]