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See also:
U+5F8C, 後
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5F8C

[U+5F8B]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5F8D]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
9 strokes

Han character[edit]

(Kangxi radical 60, +6, 9 strokes, cangjie input 竹人女戈水 (HOVIE), four-corner 22247, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 366, character 18
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 10098
  • Dae Jaweon: page 688, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 822, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+5F8C

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp. *
Wikipedia has articles on:

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Spring and Autumn Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu slip and silk script Qin slip script Ancient script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
後-oracle.svg 後-bronze.svg 後-bronze-spring.svg 後-bronze-warring.svg 後-silk.svg 後-slip.svg 後-ancient.svg 後-seal.svg 後-bigseal.svg

Ideogrammic compound (會意): (to walk slowly) + (tiny) + (slowly).

Note that the simplified form (OC *ɡoːʔ, *ɡoːs) is also a traditional character on its own, with a different meaning.

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *hwak (below) (STEDT). Cognate with Tibetan འོག ('og, below), Burmese အောက် (auk, under; below) (from Proto-Lolo-Burmese *ʔok (lower side; below)).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note: heu3 - only in 後生.
Note:
  • Sixian:
    • hêu - vernacular;
    • heu - literary.
  • Meixian:
    • hêu1 - vernacular;
    • hêu4 - literary.
  • Jin
  • Min Bei
  • Min Dong
  • Note:
    • âu - vernacular;
    • hâu - vernacular (only in 後生);
    • hâiu - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • āu/ǎu - vernacular;
    • hāu/hǎu - vernacular (only in 後生, 後的);
    • hō͘/hiǒ/hiō - literary.
    Note:
    • ao6 - vernacular;
    • hao6 - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang
  • Note:
    • hou6 - vernacular;
    • hou5 - literary.

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    Initial () (33) (33)
    Final () (137) (137)
    Tone (調) Rising (X) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open Open
    Division () I I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ɦəuX/ /ɦəuH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ɦəuX/ /ɦəuH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ɣəuX/ /ɣəuH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ɦəwX/ /ɦəwH/
    Li
    Rong
    /ɣuX/ /ɣuH/
    Wang
    Li
    /ɣəuX/ /ɣəuH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ɣə̯uX/ /ɣə̯uH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    hòu hòu
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    hau6 hau6
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    hòu hòu
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ huwX › ‹ huwH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[ɢ]ˁ(r)oʔ/ /*[ɢ]ˁ(r)oʔ-s/
    English after put after ?

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    No. 5178 5179
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0 0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    𠋫
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ɢoːʔ/ /*ɢoːs/
    Notes

    Definitions[edit]

    1. behind; rear; back
        ―  hòuyuàn  ―  backyard
        ―  bèihòu  ―  behind
      Antonym: (qián)
    2. later; after; afterwards
        ―  hòu  ―  after
        ―  ránhòu  ―  after, afterwards
      畢業毕业  ―  bìyè hòu  ―  after graduation
        ―  sān tiān hòu  ―  after three days
    3. last
        ―  hòu wǔ míng  ―  the last five
    4. descendants; offsprings
        ―  hòu  ―  to lack male offspring
    5. post-
    6. (literary) anus
    7. a surname

    Compounds[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: (こう) (); () (go)
    • Korean: (, hu)
    • Vietnamese: hậu ()

    References[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. behind, after

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    あと
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    Originally an extension of (ato, footprint; leftover), itself a compound of (a, foot) +‎ (to, place).[1][2][3]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (あと) (ato

    1. (spatially) the back, the rear, behind
    2. (temporally) later, afterwards, some time after the present
      (あと)連絡(れんらく)します。
      Ato de renraku shimasu.
      I'll contact you later.
      会議(かいぎ)(あと)
      kaigi no ato
      after the meeting
    3. the rest
      あと(たの)だぞ。
      Ato wa tanonda zo.
      I leave the rest to you.

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    うしろ
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi
    Alternative spelling
    後ろ (common)

    From Old Japanese. First cited to a portion of the Shoku Nihongi dated to 781, with the phonetic spelling 宇志呂 (usiro2).[5]

    Ultimate derivation unknown. Might be from stem ushi ("lost; gone, out of sight", as in 失う (ushinau, to lose), older verb 失す (usu, to lose; to go away)) + locative suffix -ro2 indicating an interior (as in (tokoro, place), 空ろ虚ろ (utsuro, emptiness, a hollow), (uro, a hollow space in something), (muro, room; cave), possibly (kokoro, heart)).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (うしろ) (ushiro

    1. the back, the rear (both spatially and temporally)
    2. one's backside

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    おくれ
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    The 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of verb 遅れる (okureru, to be late; to be delayed; to come after something else). Examples appear from at least the 1300s.[1]

    More commonly spelled with the okurigana.

    Definitions[edit]

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
    おく
    [noun] [from 1914] something later, after, or behind
    [noun] [from 1914] delay, postponement, lag
    [noun] [from 1730] loss, failure, inferiority compared to something else
    [noun] [from late 1300s] uncertainty, nervousness, indecision
    Alternative spellings
    後れ, ,
    (This term, , is an alternative (rare) spelling of the above term.)

    Etymology 4[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    しり
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    Uncommon alternative spelling.

    Definitions[edit]

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
    しりS
    [noun] behind; the end
    [noun] the rear portion of the body: bottom, buttocks
    [noun] the bottom or underside of an object
    [suffix] suffix in certain surnames
    Alternative spellings
    , ,
    (This term, , is an alternative (less common) spelling of the above term.)

    Etymology 5[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    しりえ
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi
    Alternative spelling
    後方

    From Old Japanese. Found in the Nihon Shoki of 720, and phonetically as 志利弊 (siripe1) in the Man'yōshū of 759.[7]

    Compound of (shiri, butt, tail, rear) +‎ (e, side, facing, way, direction).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (しりえ) (shirie

    1. the rear, back, or backside of something
    2. the rearward or backward direction
    3. the portion of a palace where a queen or other female imperial consort lives

    Etymology 6[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    のち
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese [Term?]. Ultimate derivation unknown.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (のち) (nochi

    1. later, afterwards, some time after the present
      ()のち(あめ)
      hare nochi ame
      rains after sunshine

    Etymology 7[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    ゆり
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese [Term?]. Ultimate derivation unknown. May be cognate with より (yori, from; after).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (ゆり) (yuri

    1. (obsolete) later, afterwards, some time after the present

    Etymology 8[edit]

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 2
    tōon
    Alternative spelling

    From Middle Chinese (ɦəuX, ɦəuH, after). Classified as the tōon or "Tang sound", so likely borrowed from the dialects spoken during the Tang dynasty.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    () (go

    1. later, afterwards, some time after the present
      (かれ)卒業後(そつぎょうご)結婚(けっこん)します。
      Kare wa sotsugyōgo ni kekkonshimasu.
      He is going to get married after the graduation.
      (かれ)卒業後(そつぎょうご)大阪(おおさか)会社(かいしゃ)(つと)めます。
      Kare wa sotsugyōgo wa Ōsaka no kaisha ni tsutomemasu.
      He is going to work for a company in Osaka after the graduation.
      卒業後(そつぎょうご)(かれ)小学校(しょうがっこう)先生(せんせい)になった。
      Sotsugyōgo, kare wa shōgakkō no sensei ni natta.
      After the graduation, he became a teacher at an elementary school.

    Suffix[edit]

    () (-go

    1. after

    Etymology 9[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    こう
    Grade: 2
    kan’on

    From Middle Chinese (MC ɦəuX). Classified as the kan'on, so likely a later borrowing. Compare modern Mandarin reading hòu.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Prefix[edit]

    (こう) (kō-

    1. prefixing element in kanji compounds, adding a meaning of later, after, following, rearward
    Usage notes[edit]

    Only used in compounds. Never used in isolation.

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    3. ^ 1995, 大辞泉 (Daijisen) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN
    4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    5. ^ ”, in 日本国語大辞典 (Nihon Kokugo Daijiten, Nihon Kokugo Daijiten)[1] (in Japanese), 2nd edition, Tōkyō: Shogakukan, 2000, →ISBN
    6. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
    7. ^ 後方・後”, in 日本国語大辞典 (Nihon Kokugo Daijiten, Nihon Kokugo Daijiten)[2] (in Japanese), 2nd edition, Tōkyō: Shogakukan, 2000, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC ɦəuX).

    Historical Readings
    Dongguk Jeongun Reading
    Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 ᅘᅮᇢ〯 (Yale: hhwǔw)
    Middle Korean
    Text Eumhun
    Gloss (hun) Reading
    Hunmong Jahoe, 1527[4] 뒤〯 (Yale: twǔy) 후〯 (Yale: hwǔ)

    Pronunciation[edit]

    • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [ɸʷu(ː)]
    • Phonetic hangul: [(ː)]
      • Though still prescriptive in Standard Korean, most speakers in both Koreas no longer distinguish vowel length.

    Hanja[edit]

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun (dwi hu))

    1. Hanja form? of (after).
    2. Hanja form? of (behind).

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [5]

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Nôm readings: hậu

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.