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See also: and
U+6606, 昆
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6606

[U+6605]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6607]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(Kangxi radical 72, +4, 8 strokes, cangjie input 日心心 (APP), four-corner 60711, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 490, character 39
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 13792
  • Dae Jaweon: page 852, character 9
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 1489, character 9
  • Unihan data for U+6606

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp. #
alternative forms
𥊽

𣋥
𧲟

Glyph origin[edit]

Ideogrammic compound (會意): + .

Etymology 1[edit]

trad.
simp. #
alternative forms
“elder brother”
From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *(g/k)əw-n (elder brother; senior male relative); cognate with (OC *ɡuʔ, “maternal uncle”) (Benedict, 1972; STEDT).
Alternatively, it may be related to Middle Mon ကော (kao, elder brother), with nominal suffix -n added (Schuessler, 2007).
“descendants; later”
Perhaps from Proto-Mon-Khmer *kuun (child); cognate with Min (“son; child”) (Schuessler, 2007) and with ancient Chu dialect (OC *koːn, “child; offspring”) (Ye, 2014); cf. also some rear meanings of the characters (OC *kroːns, “young child”), (OC *kuːn, “roe; fish egg”) and (OC *kruːn, “roe”) (ibid.). In modern Wu dialects the character (OC *koːn) is used to mean "children" (ibid.).
“many; numerous”
From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *m-kul (twenty; all); cognate with (OC *ɡlun, “herd; all”) (Schuessler, 2007; STEDT).

is pronounced with aspirated initial /kʰ/ instead of the expected /k/ in the majority of modern varieties of Chinese. The /k/ sound in (MC kuən) was changed to /kʰ/ during its historical development to avoid homophony with (MC kuən, “underclothing”), a word that was historically in vernacular use (Hirayama, 2005).

This etymology is incomplete. You can help Wiktionary by elaborating on the origins of this term.

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • gwan1 - literary;
  • kwan1 - vernacular.
  • Gan
  • Hakka
  • Jin
  • Min Bei
  • Min Dong
  • Min Nan
  • Wu
  • Xiang

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (28)
    Final () (55)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Closed
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kuən/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kuon/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kuən/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kwən/
    Li
    Rong
    /kuən/
    Wang
    Li
    /kuən/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /kuən/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    gūn
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    gwan1
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    kūn
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ kwon ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[k]ˁu[n]/
    English elder brother

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 7519
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    2
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kuːn/
    Notes

    Definitions[edit]

    1. (obsolete) together
    2. (literary) elder brother
    3. (literary) descendants
    4. (obsolete) later
    5. (obsolete) many; numerous
      /   ―  kūnchóng  ―  insect
    6. (obsolete) Alternative form of (kūn).
    7. Short for 昆明 (Kūnmíng).
      鐵路 / 铁路  ―  Chéng Kūn Tiělù  ―  Chengdu–Kunming railway
    8. a surname.
    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Pronunciation[edit]


    Definitions[edit]

    1. Only used in 昆侖昆仑 (húnlún), alternative form of 渾淪浑沦 (húnlún).

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Pronunciation[edit]


    Definitions[edit]

    1. Alternative form of (hùn, “to unite”).
    2. 54th tetragram of the Taixuanjing; "unity" (𝌻)

    Etymology 4[edit]

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see .
    (This character, , is the simplified and variant traditional form of .)
    Notes:

    References[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (common “Jōyō” kanji)

    1. A swarm of or an organism that swarms (e.g. bugs), an organism that forms in large groups (e.g. kombu)
    2. elder brother
    3. descendants, great-great-great-great grandchild

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]


    Korean[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC kuən). Recorded as Middle Korean (kwon) (Yale: kwon) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

    Hanja[edit]

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 맏형 (macheong gon))

    1. Hanja form? of (swarm).
    2. Hanja form? of (the eldest brother).

    Compounds[edit]

    See also[edit]

    References[edit]

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Việt readings: côn
    : Hán Nôm readings: con, gon

    Noun[edit]

    (con)

    1. Nôm form of con (child).