- KangXi: page 490, character 39
- Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 13792
- Dae Jaweon: page 852, character 9
- Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 1489, character 9
- Unihan data for U+6606
- “elder brother”
- From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *(g/k)əw-n (“elder brother; senior male relative”); cognate with 舅 (, “maternal uncle”) ( *ɡuʔBenedict, 1972; STEDT).
- Alternatively, it may be related to Middle Mon ကော (kao, “elder brother”), with nominal suffix -n added (Schuessler, 2007).
- “descendants; later”
- Perhaps from Proto-Mon-Khmer *kuun (“child”); cognate with Min 囝 (“son; child”) (Schuessler, 2007) and with ancient Chu dialect 觀 (, “child; offspring”) ( *koːnYe, 2014); cf. also some rear meanings of the characters 丱 (, “young child”), *kroːns鯤 (, “roe; fish egg”) and *kuːn鰥 (, “roe”) ( *kruːnibid.). In modern Wu dialects the character 官 () is used to mean "children" ( *koːnibid.).
- “many; numerous”
- From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *m-kul (“twenty; all”); cognate with 群 (, “herd; all”) ( *ɡlunSchuessler, 2007; STEDT).
昆 is pronounced with aspirated initial /kʰ/ instead of the expected /k/ in the majority of modern varieties of Chinese. The /k/ sound in 昆 () was changed to kuən/kʰ/ during its historical development to avoid homophony with 褌 (, “underclothing”), a word that was historically in vernacular use ( kuənHirayama, 2005).
This etymology is incomplete. You can help Wiktionary by elaborating on the origins of this term.
- (obsolete) together
- (literary) elder brother
- 終遠兄弟，謂他人昆。謂他人昆，亦莫我聞。 [Pre-Classical Chinese, trad.]
- From: The Classic of Poetry, circa 11th – 7th centuries BCE, translated based on James Legge's version
- Zhōng yuàn xiōngdì, wèi tārén kūn. Wèi tārén kūn, yì mò wǒ wén. [Pinyin]
- For ever separated from my brothers,
I call a stranger elder-brother.
I call a stranger elder-brother,
But he will not listen to me.
终远兄弟，谓他人昆。谓他人昆，亦莫我闻。 [Pre-Classical Chinese, simp.]
- (literary) descendants
- (obsolete) later
- (obsolete) many; numerous
- (obsolete) Alternative form of 焜 (kūn).
- Short for 昆明 (Kūnmíng).
- a surname.
|For pronunciation and definitions of 昆 – see 崑.|
(This character, 昆, is the simplified and variant traditional form of 崑.)
- “昆”, in 漢語多功能字庫 (Multi-function Chinese Character Database), 香港中文大學 (the Chinese University of Hong Kong), 2014–
- A swarm of or an organism that swarms (e.g. bugs), an organism that forms in large groups (e.g. kombu)
- elder brother
- descendants, great-great-great-great grandchild
- Go-on: こん (kon, Jōyō)
- Kan-on: こん (kon, Jōyō)
- Kun: あに (ani, 昆); なかま (nakama); むれ (mure)
- Nanori: ひ (hi); ひで (hide); やす (yasu)
- 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전／電子字典.