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See also:
U+9054, 達
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-9054

[U+9053]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+9055]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(Kangxi radical 162, +9, 12 strokes, cangjie input 卜土廿手 (YGTQ), four-corner 34304, composition𦍒)

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1262, character 10
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 39011
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1755, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 6, page 3855, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+9054

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp. *
alternative forms 𨔬

Glyph origin[edit]

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *tʰaːd, *daːd): semantic + phonetic (OC *tʰaːd).

Note that inner component is not – these are not related, and there is an extra stroke in (two horizontal strokes at the bottom, not one).

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *dat (live; alive). Cognate with Tibetan སྡོད (sdod, to stay; to sit; to live) and Proto-Lolo-Burmese *dat (alive).

Pronunciation 1[edit]



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ta³⁵/
Harbin /ta²⁴/
Tianjin /tɑ⁴⁵/
Jinan /ta⁴²/
Qingdao /ta⁵⁵/
Zhengzhou /ta⁴²/
Xi'an /ta²⁴/
Xining /ta²⁴/
Yinchuan /ta¹³/
Lanzhou /ta⁵³/
/tʰa⁵³/
Ürümqi /ta⁵¹/
Wuhan /ta²¹³/
Chengdu /ta³¹/
Guiyang /ta²¹/
Kunming /ta̠³¹/
Nanjing /tɑʔ⁵/
Hefei /tɐʔ⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /taʔ⁵⁴/
Pingyao /tʌʔ⁵³/
Hohhot /taʔ⁴³/
Wu Shanghai /daʔ¹/
Suzhou /daʔ³/
Hangzhou /dɑʔ²/
Wenzhou /da²¹³/
Hui Shexian /tʰa²²/
Tunxi /tɔ⁵/
Xiang Changsha /ta²⁴/
Xiangtan /tɒ²⁴/
Gan Nanchang /tʰaʔ²/
Hakka Meixian /tʰat̚⁵/
Taoyuan /tʰɑt̚⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /tat̚²/
Nanning /tat̚²²/
Hong Kong /tat̚²/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /tat̚⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /taʔ⁵/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /tuɛ²⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /tak̚⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /ʔdak̚³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (7)
Final () (63)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/dɑt̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/dɑt̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/dɑt̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/dat̚/
Li
Rong
/dɑt̚/
Wang
Li
/dɑt̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/dʱɑt̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
daat6
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ dat ›
Old
Chinese
/*[l]ˁat/
English arrive at

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 1929
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*daːd/

Definitions[edit]

  1. (literary, or in compounds) to lead to; to go to
  2. (literary, or in compounds) to reach; to arrive at
  3. to achieve; to attain
  4. (literary, or in compounds) to thoroughly understand; to understand
  5. (literary, or in compounds) to express; to convey
  6. (literary, or in compounds) current; general; common
  7. (literary, or in compounds) optimistic; philosophical
  8. (literary, or in compounds) illustrious; influential; intelligent
  9. (literary, or in compounds) everywhere; all over
  10. (literary, or in compounds) onomatopoeia for the collision of objects
  11. (Dungan) father
  12. 15th tetragram of the Taixuanjing; "reach" (𝌔)
  13. () Da County (modern-day Dachuan District in Dazhou, Sichuan)
  14. a surname
Synonyms[edit]
  • (to reach):
edit
edit
  • (to express):
edit
  • (illustrious):
edit
  • (father):
Antonyms[edit]
  • (to understand):
edit

Compounds[edit]

Pronunciation 2[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (6)
Final () (63)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/tʰɑt̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/tʰɑt̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/tʰɑt̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/tʰat̚/
Li
Rong
/tʰɑt̚/
Wang
Li
/tʰɑt̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/tʰɑt̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
ta
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
taat3
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 1923
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*tʰaːd/

Definitions[edit]

  1. Only used in 挑達挑达 (tāotà, “coming and going freely; frivolous”).

Compounds[edit]

Pronunciation 3[edit]


Definitions[edit]

  1. slippery; smooth

Japanese[edit]

Shinjitai
Kyūjitai
[1][2][3]

達󠄁
+&#xE0101;?
(Adobe-Japan1)
U9054-kyu.svg
達󠄃
+&#xE0103;?
(Hanyo-Denshi)
(Moji_Joho)
The displayed kanji may be different from the image due to your environment.
See here for details.

Kanji[edit]

(grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
たち
Grade: 4
kun’yomi
Kanji in this term
だち > たち
Grade: 4
goon

From Old Japanese. Appears in the Man'yōshū, completed some time after 759 CE.[4] The tachi reading is analyzed by some references[5] as kun'yomi or a native-Japanese reading. Alternatively, this has been understood as a shift from the goon reading of dachi.

Beyond Japanese, apparently related to Middle Korean ᄃᆞᆶ〮 (tólh, pluralizing particle) > Korean (-deul, pluralizing particle), perhaps reflecting Old Korean */tatVk/ (Vovin 2010, p. 120), and thus not actually of Chinese origin. However, probably phonologically reinforced by the Sino-Japanese reading of Middle Chinese (MC tʰɑt̚, dɑt̚).

Reconstructed by Alexander Francis-Ratte as Pre-Proto-Japonic *tətəj. Taking the aforementioned Korean suffix into consideration, from Proto-Japano-Koreanic *tətəŋ.[6]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

(たち) (-tachi

  1. plural marker
    ()(ども)()(ども)(たち)(おれ)(おれ)(たち)
    kodomo, kodomotachi, ore, oretachi
    child, children, I, we
    • 1994 March 25, Ragawa, Marimo, “(あか)ちゃんと(ぼく) (だい)33() [Baby & Me: Chapter 33]”, in 赤ちゃんと僕 [Baby & Me], volume 7 (fiction), Tokyo: Hakusensha, →ISBN, page 27:
      この(とり)(たち)だって(じゃ)()じゃないか
      Kono tori-tachi datte jama ja nai ka
      But aren’t these birds a bit of a hindrance?
  2. attached to the name of the representative of a group to refer to that whole group
    (きょう)()ちゃんたち
    Kyōko-chan-tachi
    Kyōko-chan and her friend(s)
    ママたち
    mama-tachi
    mommy and her friend(s)
    • 2004 April 7, Watsuki, Nobuhiro, “(だい)() ロックオン [Chapter 8: Lock On]”, in ()(ソウ)(レン)(キン) [Armed Alchemy], volume 2, Tokyo: Shueisha, →ISBN, page 23:
      (ろく)(ます)(たち)(あや)めて(さき)(げん)(かん)()っててくれ
      Rokumasu-tachi ayamete saki ni genkan de matte tekure
      Go get Rokumasu and the others and wait for me at the entrance, will you?
  3. (archaic, possibly obsolete) honorific suffix
Usage notes[edit]

Note that tachi only clarifies that the number of people in question is more than one. It could be omitted when the plurality is already clear by context or considered negligible. The plurality marked with tachi is not syntactic. Tachi is normally used only for people.

Synonyms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
たつ > たっ
Grade: 4
on’yomi
For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
たっ
[noun] official notice
[verb] stem or continuative form of 達する (tassuru) [suru]
Alternative spellings
, 達示
(This term, , is an alternative (in official documents) spelling of the above term.)

References[edit]

  1. ^ ”, in 漢字ぺディア (Kanjipedia)[1] (in Japanese), 日本漢字能力検定協会, 2015—2022
  2. ^ 1914, 漢和大辭書 (Kanwa Dai Jisho, “The Great Kanji-Japanese Dictionary”) (in Japanese), page 2122 (paper), page 1113 (digital), Tōkyō: 興文社 (Kōbunsha)
  3. ^ 1927, 新漢和辭典 (Shin Kanwa Jiten, “The New Kanji-Japanese Dictionary”) (in Japanese), page 1224 (paper), page 625 (digital), Ōsaka: 松雲堂 (Shōundō)
  4. ^ c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 19, poem 4240), text here
  5. ^ Jim Breen's WWWJDIC, character entry here
  6. ^ Francis-Ratte, Alexander. “On the Etymology of the Japanese Plural Suffix and Its Possible Connection to Korean.” Asian Languages and Linguistics 2, no. 1 (2021): 24–35. doi:10.1075/ALAL.21005.FRA. [2]

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(eumhun 통달할 (tongdalhal dal))

  1. Hanja form? of (to reach; to arrive at).
  2. Hanja form? of (achieve; to attain).

Compounds[edit]


Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

: Hán Nôm readings: đạt

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.