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See also:
U+9BE8, 鯨
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-9BE8

[U+9BE7]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+9BE9]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(Kangxi radical 195, +8, 19 strokes, cangjie input 弓火卜口火 (NFYRF), four-corner 20396, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1473, character 12
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 46257
  • Dae Jaweon: page 2005, character 9
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 7, page 4698, character 6
  • Unihan data for U+9BE8

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.
alternative forms
𩼃

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Small seal script
鯨-seal.svg

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ɡraŋ): semantic (fish) + phonetic (OC *kraŋ).

Etymology[edit]

Cognate with (OC *kraŋ, “mound; capital; great”) (Wang, 1982).

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (30)
Final () (111)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɡˠiæŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɡᵚiaŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɡiaŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/giajŋ/
Li
Rong
/ɡiɐŋ/
Wang
Li
/ɡĭɐŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/gi̯ɐŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
qíng
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
king4
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
jīng
Middle
Chinese
‹ gjæng ›
Old
Chinese
/*[ɡ]raŋ/
English whale

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 6832
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɡraŋ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. whale
  2. great; huge

Synonyms[edit]

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
くじら
Grade: S
kun’yomi

/kudira//kud͡ʑira/

From Old Japanese. Appears in the Kojiki of 712 CE with the man'yōgana spelling 久治良 (kudira). Hypothesized as ultimately from reconstructed Proto-Japonic *kuntira.

Ultimate derivation unclear. Theories include an alteration from (kuchibiro) in reference to the wide mouth;[1] an alteration from 開く (kuchibiraku) in reference to the gaping mouth; and an alteration from 黒白 (kuroshiro) in reference to the black-and-white coloration of certain cetaceans.[2]

However, the oldest sources clearly spell the term as kudira.

  • This rules out (kuti → kuchi, mouth) as an etymon, as the oldest compounds using this term use the bound form kutu, not kuti, and there is no support for a kutukudi shift.
  • This also rules out (siro, sira → shiro, shira, white) as an etymon. Although rendaku (voicing in compounds) would give modern jira as a reading for , the ancient reading of sira would voice to something closer to zira, and there is no support for a ziradira shift.

Also compare Korean 고래 (gorae) "whale."

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(くじら) (kujiraくぢら (kudira)?

  1. a whale (large sea mammal)
    • 898901, Shinsen Jikyō (volume 9 page 1)
      鼇 五労反 久地良(久知)
    • 898901, Shinsen Jikyō (volume 9 page 2)
      鼇 敖龜字 背負甲 蓬莱之山遊戯 滄之中 久地良
    • 931938, Minamoto no Shitagō, Wamyō Ruijushō (book 8, page 3)
      鯨 鯢 唐韻云、大魚、雄曰鯨、渠京反、雌曰鯢、音蜺、久知良 [...]
      “鯨" and "鯢" are Chinese words for big fishes. Males are called 鯨, whose pronunciation is represented by 渠京 and Females are called 蜺... (Its Japanese pronunciation is 久知良
    • 16031604, Nippo Jisho (page 165)
      Cujira. (鯨) 鯨.
      (please add an English translation of this usage example)
Usage notes[edit]

As with many terms that name organisms, this term is often spelled in katakana, especially in biological contexts (where katakana is customary), as クジラ.

Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
いさ
Grade: S
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese. Root isa (“powerful?”) appears to be the same element in verb 勇む (isamu, to be courageous, to be in high spirits).[5]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(いさ) (isa

  1. (archaic) a whale (large sea mammal)
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
いさな
Grade: S
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese. Found in the Man'yōshū completed some time after 759 CE,[6] often with the spelling 鯨魚 (literally whale fish).

From cognate isa above, suffixed with (-na, fish).[5][4] Sometimes spelled as 勇魚.

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

(いさな) (isana

  1. (archaic) a whale (large sea mammal)
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 13, poem 3339); text here
      玉桙之 道尓出立 葦引乃 野行山行 潦 川徃渉 鯨名取 海路丹出而...
      玉桙の 道に出で立ち あしひきの 野行き山行き にはたづみ 川行き渡り 鯨魚取り 海道に出でて...
      たまほこの みちにいでたち あしひきの のゆきやまゆき にはたづみ かはゆきわたり いさなとり うみぢにいでて...
      Tamahoko no / michi ni idetachi / ashi hiki no / no yuki yama yuki / niwatazumi / kawa yuki watari / isana tori umiji ni idete...
      Heading out on the jeweled-spear road, going through the alluring fields and mountains, crossing the puddles and rivers, taking to the whaling sea road ...
Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 1891, 言海 (Genkai, “Sea of Words”) (in Japanese), lead editor Ōtsuki Fumihiko. Entry available online here.
  2. ^ 2007-2014, 日本辞典 (Nihon Jiten, “Japan Dictionary”), 生物語源辞典 (Seibutsu Gogen Jiten, “Living Organism Etymology Dictionary”) section (in Japanese). Entry available online here.
  3. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
  4. 4.0 4.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  5. 5.0 5.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  6. ^ c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 13, poem 3335), text available online here

Korean[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Chinese (MC ɡˠiæŋ).

Recorded as Middle Korean 껴ᇰ (Yale: kkyeng) in Dongguk Jeongun (東國正韻 / 동국정운), 1448.

Recorded as Middle Korean 겨ᇰ (kyeng) (Yale: kyeng) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

Hanja[edit]

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 고래 (gorae gyeong))

  1. Hanja form? of (whale).

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]

  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

Kunigami[edit]

Kanji[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana ぐんじゃ, romaji gunja)

  1. whale

Miyako[edit]

Kanji[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana ふづぁ, romaji fudza)

  1. whale

Okinawan[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana ぐじら, romaji gujira)

  1. whale

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

: Hán Nôm readings: kình, kềnh

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.