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Etymology 1[edit]

Inherited from Proto-Slavic *-ati.

Alternative forms[edit]


-ать or -а́ть (-atʹ or -átʹ)

  1. The infinitive suffix for many verbs. Usually indicates an imperfective verb.
  2. Used in place of -я́ть (-játʹ) after the hushing sibilants ш щ ч ж and after жд, when used to derive imperfective verbs from (normally but not always prefixed) perfective class 4 verbs (in -ить (-itʹ)) following one of т д с з ш ж ч щ. Always stressed. Triggers iotation of the final stem consonant, although it's unpredictable whether the iotation of т results in ч or щ, and whether the iotation of д results in ж or жд. Very occasionally found with class 5 verbs in -еть (-etʹ).
    по- (po-) + ‎ме́тить impf (métitʹ, to mark) → ‎поме́тить pf (pométitʹ, to mark, to date) + ‎-а́ть (-átʹ) → ‎помеча́ть impf (pomečátʹ)
    за- (za-) + ‎роди́ть impf (rodítʹ, to give birth) → ‎зароди́ть pf (zarodítʹ, to engender) + ‎-а́ть (-átʹ) → ‎зарожда́ть impf (zaroždátʹ)
    ко́нчить pf (kónčitʹ, to finish) + ‎-а́ть (-átʹ) → ‎конча́ть impf (končátʹ)
    оби́деть pf (obídetʹ, to offend, to insult) + ‎-а́ть (-átʹ) → ‎обижа́ть impf (obižátʹ)
  3. Used to derive imperfective verbs from certain classes of prefixed perfective verbs, where the stem ends in a non-palatal consonant, e.g. class 3 (-нуть (-nutʹ)), class 6 (some -ать (-atʹ), particularly where the present tense does not end in -аю (-aju)), class 7 (-ть (-tʹ) after a consonant and -ти (-ti)), class 8 (-чь (-čʹ)). Always stressed (which may be the only difference between the perfective and imperfective forms, esp. for class 6 perfectives). It is added to the underlying stem, minus the infinitive suffix. In some cases, the underlying stem is not apparent in the infinitive. In such a case, the stem may appear in the present tense (in class 7 verbs such as напа́сть (napástʹ), underlying stem напа́д- visible in present 1st singular нападу́ (napadú), or in class 8 verbs such as отсе́чь (otséčʹ), underlying stem отсе́к- visible in present 1st singular отсеку́ (otsekú)) or may not (in class 3 verbs in -нуть, e.g. поки́нуть (pokínutʹ), underlying stem поки́д-).
    за- (za-) + ‎мо́лкнуть impf (mólknutʹ, to fade, to grow quiet) → ‎замо́лкнуть pf (zamólknutʹ, to become silent) + ‎-а́ть (-átʹ) → ‎замолка́ть impf (zamolkátʹ)
    об- (ob-) + ‎грызть impf (gryztʹ, to gnaw) → ‎обгры́зть pf (obgrýztʹ, to gnaw around) + ‎-а́ть (-átʹ) → ‎обгрыза́ть impf (obgryzátʹ)
    на- (na-) + ‎пасть impf (pastʹ, to fall) → ‎напа́сть pf (napástʹ, to fall on, to attack) (underlying stem напа́д-) + ‎-а́ть (-átʹ) → ‎напада́ть impf (napadátʹ)
    от- (ot-) + ‎сечь impf (sečʹ, to cut, to chop) → ‎отсе́чь pf (otséčʹ, to cut off, to chop off) (underlying stem отсе́к-) + ‎-а́ть (-átʹ) → ‎отсека́ть impf (otsekátʹ)
    раз- (raz-) + ‎ре́зать impf (rézatʹ, to cut, to carve) → ‎разре́зать pf (razrézatʹ, to cut off) + ‎-а́ть (-átʹ) → ‎разреза́ть impf (razrezátʹ)
    по- (po-) + ‎ки́нуть impf (kínutʹ, to throw) → ‎поки́нуть pf (pokínutʹ, to leave, to abandon) (underlying stem поки́д-) + ‎-а́ть (-átʹ) → ‎покида́ть impf (pokidátʹ)
  4. Occasionally, irregularly used to derive imperfective verbs from (normally but not always prefixed) perfective class 4 (-ить (-itʹ)) and class 5 (some -еть (-etʹ)) verbs where the stem ends in a paired palatal consonant. Always stressed. Does not trigger iotation.
    с- (s-) + ‎купи́ть impf (kupítʹ, to buy) → ‎скупи́ть pf (skupítʹ, to buy up) + ‎-а́ть (-átʹ) → ‎скупа́ть impf (skupátʹ)
    от- (ot-) + ‎руби́ть impf (rubítʹ, to chop) → ‎отруби́ть pf (otrubítʹ, to chop off) + ‎-а́ть (-átʹ) → ‎отруба́ть impf (otrubátʹ)
    ступи́ть pf (stupítʹ, to tread, to step) + ‎-а́ть (-átʹ) → ‎ступа́ть impf (stupátʹ)
    до- (do-) + ‎горе́ть impf (gorétʹ, to burn) → ‎догоре́ть pf (dogorétʹ, to burn down, to burn out) + ‎-а́ть (-átʹ) → ‎догора́ть impf (dogorátʹ)



See also[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Inherited from Proto-Slavic *-ati, from earlier *-ěti, from Proto-Balto-Slavic *-ēˀtei, from Proto-Indo-European *-eh₁- (stative suffix).

Alternative forms[edit]

  • -е́ть (-étʹ)not after hushing sibilants or /j/
  • -я́ть (-játʹ)after underling /j/


-а́ть (-átʹ)

  1. Used in place of -е́ть (-étʹ) after the hushing sibilants ш щ ч ж, when used to derive class-5 imperfective verbs from nouns, especially onomatopoeic verbs. Probably no longer productive.

ending-stressed (type 5b):

ending-stressed (type 5c):

stem-stressed (type 5a):