-ать

Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to navigation Jump to search
See also: ять and -ять

Russian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *-ati.

Alternative forms[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ать or -а́ть (-atʹ or -átʹ)

  1. The infinitive suffix for many verbs. Usually indicates an imperfective verb.
  2. Used in place of -я́ть (-játʹ) after the hushing sibilants ш щ ч ж and after жд, when used to derive imperfective verbs from (normally but not always prefixed) perfective class 4 verbs (in -ить (-itʹ)) following one of т д с з ш щ ч ж. Always stressed. Triggers iotation of the final stem consonant, although it's unpredictable whether the iotation of т results in ч or щ, and whether the iotation of д results in ж or жд. Very occasionally found with class 5 verbs in -еть (-etʹ).
    ме́тить impf (métitʹ, to mark)поме́тить pf (pométitʹ, to mark, to date)помеча́ть impf (pomečátʹ)
    роди́ть impf (rodítʹ, to give birth)зароди́ть pf (zarodítʹ, to engender)зарожда́ть impf (zaroždátʹ)
    ко́нчить pf (kónčitʹ, to finish)конча́ть impf (končátʹ)
    оби́деть pf (obídetʹ, to offend, to insult)обижа́ть impf (obižátʹ)
  3. Used to derive imperfective verbs from certain classes of prefixed perfective verbs, where the stem ends in a non-palatal consonant, e.g. class 3 (-нуть (-nutʹ)), class 6 (some -ать (-atʹ), particularly where the present tense does not end in -аю (-aju)), class 7 (-ть (-tʹ) after a consonant and -ти (-ti)), class 8 (-чь (-čʹ)). Always stressed (which may be the only difference between the perfective and imperfective forms, esp. for class 6 perfectives). It is added to the underlying stem, minus the infinitive suffix. In some cases, the underlying stem is not apparent in the infinitive. In such a case, the stem may appear in the present tense (in class 7 verbs such as напа́сть (napástʹ), underlying stem напа́д- visible in present 1st singular нападу́ (napadú), or in class 8 verbs such as отсе́чь (otséčʹ), underlying stem отсе́к- visible in present 1st singular отсеку́ (otsekú)) or may not (in class 3 verbs in -нуть, e.g. поки́нуть (pokínutʹ), underlying stem поки́д-).
    мо́лкнуть impf (mólknutʹ, to fade, to grow quiet)замо́лкнуть pf (zamólknutʹ, to become silent)замолка́ть impf (zamolkátʹ)
    грызть impf (gryztʹ, to gnaw)обгры́зть pf (obgrýztʹ, to gnaw around)обгрыза́ть impf (obgryzátʹ)
    пасть impf (pastʹ, to fall)напа́сть pf (napástʹ, to fall on, to attack) (underlying stem напа́д-) → напада́ть impf (napadátʹ)
    сечь impf (sečʹ, to cut, to chop)отсе́чь pf (otséčʹ, to cut off, to chop off) (underlying stem отсе́к-) → отсека́ть impf (otsekátʹ)
    ре́зать impf (rézatʹ, to cut, to carve)разре́зать pf (razrézatʹ, to cut off)разреза́ть impf (razrezátʹ)
    ки́нуть impf (kínutʹ, to throw)поки́нуть pf (pokínutʹ, to leave, to abandon) (underlying stem поки́д-) → покида́ть impf (pokidátʹ)
  4. Occasionally, irregularly used to derive imperfective verbs from (normally but not always prefixed) perfective class 4 (-ить (-itʹ)) and class 5 (some -еть (-etʹ)) verbs where the stem ends in a paired palatal consonant. Always stressed. Does not trigger iotation.
    купи́ть impf (kupítʹ, to buy)скупи́ть pf (skupítʹ, to buy up)скупа́ть impf (skupátʹ)
    руби́ть impf (rubítʹ, to chop)отруби́ть pf (otrubítʹ, to chop off)отруба́ть impf (otrubátʹ)
    ступи́ть pf (stupítʹ, to tread, to step)ступа́ть impf (stupátʹ)
    горе́ть impf (gorétʹ, to burn)догоре́ть pf (dogorétʹ, to burn down, to burn out)догора́ть impf (dogorátʹ)
Conjugation[edit]
See also[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *-ati, from earlier *-ěti, from Proto-Balto-Slavic *-ēˀtei, from Proto-Indo-European *-eh₁- (stative suffix).

Alternative forms[edit]

  • -е́ть (-étʹ) (not after hushing sibilants or /j/)
  • -я́ть (-játʹ) (after underling /j/)

Suffix[edit]

-а́ть (-átʹ)

  1. Used in place of -е́ть (-étʹ) after the hushing sibilants ш щ ч ж, when used to derive class-5 imperfective verbs from nouns, especially onomatopoeic verbs. Probably no longer productive.
Conjugation[edit]