-ий

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See also: ий and її

Russian[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *-ьjь.

Suffix[edit]

-ий (-ij)

  1. forms relational and possessive adjectives from nouns describing animals and people: -'s, -ine, -ian
    соба́ка (sobáka, dog) + ‎-ий (-ij) → ‎соба́чий (sobáčij, dog (relational); dog's, canine)
    ры́ба (rýba, fish) + ‎-ий (-ij) → ‎ры́бий (rýbij, fish (relational); fish's)
    пти́ца (ptíca, bird) + ‎-ий (-ij) → ‎пти́чий (ptíčij, bird (relational); bird's, avian)
    коза́ (kozá, goat) + ‎-ий (-ij) → ‎ко́зий (kózij, goat (relational); goat's)
    лиса́ (lisá, fox) + ‎-ий (-ij) → ‎ли́сий (lísij, fox (relational); vulpine, foxlike)
    стару́шка (starúška, (little) old lady) + ‎-ий (-ij) → ‎стару́шечий (starúšečij, anile, like a crone or old lady)
    ча́йка (čájka, seagull) + ‎-ий (-ij) → ‎ча́ячий (čájačij, seagull (relational); seagull's) (with irregular -я-)
    ко́шка (kóška, cat) + ‎-ий (-ij) → ‎коша́чий (košáčij, cat (relational); cat's, feline) (with irregular -а́-)
    бог (bog, god) + ‎-ий (-ij) → ‎бо́жий (bóžij, god's, divine)
    деви́ца (devíca, girl, maiden) + ‎-ий (-ij) → ‎деви́чий (devíčij, girl's, girlish)
    ба́ба (bába, woman) + ‎-ий (-ij) → ‎ба́бий (bábij, woman's) (pejorative or in expressions)
    ребя́та (rebjáta, children) + ‎-ий (-ij) → ‎ребя́чий (rebjáčij, child's, children's; childish) (with irregular iotation)
Usage notes[edit]
Declension[edit]
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *-ъ.

Suffix[edit]

-ий (-ij)

  1. -ed
    одно- (odno-, one) + нога́ (nogá, leg)одноно́гий (odnonógij, one-legged)
    жёлтый (žóltyj, yellow) + брю́хо (brjúxo, belly)желтобрю́хий (želtobrjúxij, yellow-bellied)
    без- (bez-, without) + лик (lik, face)безли́кий (bezlíkij, faceless, literally no-faced)
Usage notes[edit]
  • This suffix is a variant of -ый (-yj) used particularly after velars (к г х) due to Russian spelling rules. It is used particularly with two-part compounds, where the second part normally refers to a body part. It does not trigger the Slavic first palatalization.
  • These adjectives do have short forms, of accent pattern a.
Declension[edit]
for an adjective whose stem ends in к; similarly for г and х
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *-jь.

Suffix[edit]

-ий (-ij)

  1. forms adjectives from verbs, verbal nouns and compounds: -ous, -al, etc.
    сход (sxod, gathering)схо́жий (sxóžij, similar)
    расходи́ться (rasxodítʹsja, to sell out)расхо́жий (rasxóžij, popular, in demand)
    бес- (bes-, without) + стыд (styd, shame)бессты́жий (besstýžij, shameless)
  2. forms adjectives and adjectival nouns from some nouns referring to people
    возни́ца (vozníca, charioteer)возни́чий (vozníčij, charioteer)
    лесни́к (lesník, woodsman, forest ranger)лесни́чий (lesníčij, woodsman, forest ranger)
    рабо́та (rabóta, work)рабо́чий (rabóčij, worker; worker's)
Usage notes[edit]
  • This suffix is not too common and appears to be formed especially from nouns and verbs ending in д. Unlike the other two suffixes, it triggers iotation.
  • Adjectives formed this way tend to have a popular, colloquial flavor.
Declension[edit]
for an adjective whose stem ends in ж
Derived terms[edit]