-ий

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See also: ий and її

Russian[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *-ьjь.

Suffix[edit]

-ий (-ij)

  1. forms relational and possessive adjectives from nouns describing animals and people: -'s, -ine, -ian
    соба́ка (sobáka, dog) + ‎-ий (-ij) → ‎соба́чий (sobáčij, dog (relational); dog's, canine)
    ры́ба (rýba, fish) + ‎-ий (-ij) → ‎ры́бий (rýbij, fish (relational); fish's)
    пти́ца (ptíca, bird) + ‎-ий (-ij) → ‎пти́чий (ptíčij, bird (relational); bird's, avian)
    коза́ (kozá, goat) + ‎-ий (-ij) → ‎ко́зий (kózij, goat (relational); goat's)
    лиса́ (lisá, fox) + ‎-ий (-ij) → ‎ли́сий (lísij, fox (relational); vulpine, foxlike)
    стару́шка (starúška, (little) old lady) + ‎-ий (-ij) → ‎стару́шечий (starúšečij, anile, like a crone or old lady)
    ча́йка (čájka, seagull) + ‎-ий (-ij) → ‎ча́ячий (čájačij, seagull (relational); seagull's) (with irregular -я-)
    ко́шка (kóška, cat) + ‎-ий (-ij) → ‎коша́чий (košáčij, cat (relational); cat's, feline) (with irregular -а́-)
    бог (box, god) + ‎-ий (-ij) → ‎бо́жий (bóžij, god's, divine)
    деви́ца (devíca, girl, maiden) + ‎-ий (-ij) → ‎деви́чий (devíčij, girl's, girlish)
    ба́ба (bába, woman) + ‎-ий (-ij) → ‎ба́бий (bábij, woman's) (pejorative or in expressions)
    ребя́та (rebjáta, children) + ‎-ий (-ij) → ‎ребя́чий (rebjáčij, child's, children's; childish) (with irregular iotation)
Usage notes[edit]
Declension[edit]
Derived terms[edit]


Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *-ъ.

Suffix[edit]

-ий (-ij)

  1. -ed
    одно- (odno-, one) + ‎нога́ (nogá, leg) + ‎-ий (-ij) → ‎одноно́гий (odnonógij, one-legged)
    жёлтый (žóltyj, yellow) + ‎-о- (-o-) + ‎брю́хо (brjúxo, belly) + ‎-ий (-ij) → ‎желтобрю́хий (želtobrjúxij, yellow-bellied)
    без- (bez-, without) + ‎лик (lik, face) + ‎-ий (-ij) → ‎безли́кий (bezlíkij, faceless, literally no-faced)
Usage notes[edit]
  • This suffix is a variant of -ый (-yj) used particularly after velars (к г х) due to Russian spelling rules. It is used particularly with two-part compounds, where the second part normally refers to a body part. It does not trigger the Slavic first palatalization.
  • These adjectives do have short forms, of accent pattern a.
Declension[edit]
for an adjective whose stem ends in к; similarly for г and х
Derived terms[edit]


Etymology 3[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *-jь.

Suffix[edit]

-ий (-ij)

  1. forms adjectives from verbs, verbal nouns and compounds: -ous, -al, etc.
    сход (sxod, gathering) + ‎-ий (-ij) → ‎схо́жий (sxóžij, similar)
    расходи́ться (rasxodítʹsja, to sell out) + ‎-ий (-ij) → ‎расхо́жий (rasxóžij, popular, in demand)
    бес- (bes-, without) + ‎стыд (styd, shame) + ‎-ий (-ij) → ‎бессты́жий (besstýžij, shameless)
  2. forms adjectives and adjectival nouns from some nouns referring to people
    возни́ца (vozníca, charioteer) + ‎-ий (-ij) → ‎возни́чий (vozníčij, charioteer)
    лесни́к (lesník, woodsman, forest ranger) + ‎-ий (-ij) → ‎лесни́чий (lesníčij, woodsman, forest ranger)
    рабо́та (rabóta, work) + ‎-ий (-ij) → ‎рабо́чий (rabóčij, worker; worker's)
Usage notes[edit]
  • This suffix is not too common and appears to be formed especially from nouns and verbs ending in д. Unlike the other two suffixes, it triggers iotation.
  • Adjectives formed this way tend to have a popular, colloquial flavor.
Declension[edit]
for an adjective whose stem ends in ж
Derived terms[edit]