-ывать

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Russian[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ывать (-yvatʹ)

  1. Used to form imperfective verbs from prefixed perfective verbs. Normally used with stems ending in paired non-palatal consonants, but occasionally found with stems ending in paired palatal consonants, with the consonant becoming non-palatal before this suffix.
    отде́лать pf (otdélatʹ)отде́лывать impf (otdélyvatʹ)
    записа́ть pf (zapisátʹ)запи́сывать impf (zapísyvatʹ)
    срабо́тать pf (srabótatʹ)сраба́тывать impf (srabátyvatʹ)
    опроки́нуть pf (oprokínutʹ)опроки́дывать impf (oprokídyvatʹ)
    обхвати́ть pf (obxvatítʹ)обхва́тывать impf (obxvátyvatʹ)
    заката́ть pf (zakatátʹ)зака́тывать impf (zakátyvatʹ)
  2. Used to form frequentative verbs from non-prefixed verbs.
    писа́ть (pisátʹ, to write) + ‎-ывать (-yvatʹ) → ‎пи́сывать (písyvatʹ, to write repeatedly)
    чита́ть (čitátʹ, to read) + ‎-ывать (-yvatʹ) → ‎чи́тывать (čítyvatʹ, to read repeatedly)

Conjugation[edit]

Usage notes[edit]

The frequentative and imperfectivizing suffixes are etymologically the same. The suffixes are used with verbs in -ать (-atʹ) and -нуть (-nutʹ) (in the latter case, the underlying root reappears, which may involve an extra consonant that was lost before the -н- of the verbal suffix). They are also used with some verbs in -ить (-itʹ). The spelling variant -ивать (-ivatʹ) is used instead with verbs that end in root-final velars (к г х) and hushing consonants (ш ж ч щ). The stress is drawn onto the syllable before the prefix, and an о in that syllable usually changes into а.

Derived terms[edit]


Related terms[edit]