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See also: ւ and Ւ

Old Armenian[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]


From Proto-Indo-European *-bʰi. The vowel is preserved in ի-ւի-ք ‎(i-wi-kʿ). Cognate with Mycenaean Greek [script needed] ‎(-pi), Homeric Ancient Greek -φι ‎(-phi), Sanskrit -भ्याम् ‎(-bhy-ām, dual ablative-instrumental marker), भ्यस् ‎(-bhy-as, plural dative-ablative marker), भिस् ‎(-bhi-s, plural instrumental marker), the plural dative endings in Gaulish gobed-bi ‎(to the smiths) and Old Irish feraib ‎(to the men).



  1. instrumental case marker

Usage notes[edit]

‎(-w) applied to i- and i-a-stems, ‎(-v) to o-stems, ‎(-b) to ł-, r- and n-stems. The marker dropped reuglarly after ու ‎(u) in u-stems, e.g. զարդ ‎(zard) : instrumental զարդու ‎(zardu).

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]


  • Martirosyan, Hrach (2013), “The place of Armenian in the Indo-European language family: the relationship with Greek and Indo-Iranian”, in Journal of Language Relationship[1], issue 10, § 3.3
  • Godel, Robert (1975) An introduction to the study of classical Armenian, Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag, page 103
  • Matasović, Ranko (2009) A Grammatical Sketch of Classical Armenian[2] (pdf), Zagreb